Jing Qian


Controllable Natural Language Generation with Contrastive Prefixes
Jing Qian | Li Dong | Yelong Shen | Furu Wei | Weizhu Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

To guide the generation of large pretrained language models (LM), previous work has focused on directly fine-tuning the language model or utilizing an attribute discriminator. In this work, we propose a novel lightweight framework for controllable GPT2 generation, which utilizes a set of small attribute-specific vectors, called prefixes (Li and Liang, 2021), to steer natural language generation. Different from Li and Liang (2021), where each prefix is trained independently, we take the relationship among prefixes into consideration and train multiple prefixes simultaneously. We propose a novel supervised method and also an unsupervised method to train the prefixes for single-aspect control while the combination of these two methods can achieve multi-aspect control. Experimental results on both single-aspect and multi-aspect control show that our methods can guide generation towards the desired attributes while keeping high linguistic quality.


Lifelong Learning of Hate Speech Classification on Social Media
Jing Qian | Hong Wang | Mai ElSherief | Xifeng Yan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Existing work on automated hate speech classification assumes that the dataset is fixed and the classes are pre-defined. However, the amount of data in social media increases every day, and the hot topics changes rapidly, requiring the classifiers to be able to continuously adapt to new data without forgetting the previously learned knowledge. This ability, referred to as lifelong learning, is crucial for the real-word application of hate speech classifiers in social media. In this work, we propose lifelong learning of hate speech classification on social media. To alleviate catastrophic forgetting, we propose to use Variational Representation Learning (VRL) along with a memory module based on LB-SOINN (Load-Balancing Self-Organizing Incremental Neural Network). Experimentally, we show that combining variational representation learning and the LB-SOINN memory module achieves better performance than the commonly-used lifelong learning techniques.

Fine-grained Entity Typing without Knowledge Base
Jing Qian | Yibin Liu | Lemao Liu | Yangming Li | Haiyun Jiang | Haisong Zhang | Shuming Shi
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Existing work on Fine-grained Entity Typing (FET) typically trains automatic models on the datasets obtained by using Knowledge Bases (KB) as distant supervision. However, the reliance on KB means this training setting can be hampered by the lack of or the incompleteness of the KB. To alleviate this limitation, we propose a novel setting for training FET models: FET without accessing any knowledge base. Under this setting, we propose a two-step framework to train FET models. In the first step, we automatically create pseudo data with fine-grained labels from a large unlabeled dataset. Then a neural network model is trained based on the pseudo data, either in an unsupervised way or using self-training under the weak guidance from a coarse-grained Named Entity Recognition (NER) model. Experimental results show that our method achieves competitive performance with respect to the models trained on the original KB-supervised datasets.


Towards Understanding Gender Bias in Relation Extraction
Andrew Gaut | Tony Sun | Shirlyn Tang | Yuxin Huang | Jing Qian | Mai ElSherief | Jieyu Zhao | Diba Mirza | Elizabeth Belding | Kai-Wei Chang | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Recent developments in Neural Relation Extraction (NRE) have made significant strides towards Automated Knowledge Base Construction. While much attention has been dedicated towards improvements in accuracy, there have been no attempts in the literature to evaluate social biases exhibited in NRE systems. In this paper, we create WikiGenderBias, a distantly supervised dataset composed of over 45,000 sentences including a 10% human annotated test set for the purpose of analyzing gender bias in relation extraction systems. We find that when extracting spouse-of and hypernym (i.e., occupation) relations, an NRE system performs differently when the gender of the target entity is different. However, such disparity does not appear when extracting relations such as birthDate or birthPlace. We also analyze how existing bias mitigation techniques, such as name anonymization, word embedding debiasing, and data augmentation affect the NRE system in terms of maintaining the test performance and reducing biases. Unfortunately, due to NRE models rely heavily on surface level cues, we find that existing bias mitigation approaches have a negative effect on NRE. Our analysis lays groundwork for future quantifying and mitigating bias in NRE.

A Survey on Natural Language Processing for Fake News Detection
Ray Oshikawa | Jing Qian | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Fake news detection is a critical yet challenging problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). The rapid rise of social networking platforms has not only yielded a vast increase in information accessibility but has also accelerated the spread of fake news. Thus, the effect of fake news has been growing, sometimes extending to the offline world and threatening public safety. Given the massive amount of Web content, automatic fake news detection is a practical NLP problem useful to all online content providers, in order to reduce the human time and effort to detect and prevent the spread of fake news. In this paper, we describe the challenges involved in fake news detection and also describe related tasks. We systematically review and compare the task formulations, datasets and NLP solutions that have been developed for this task, and also discuss the potentials and limitations of them. Based on our insights, we outline promising research directions, including more fine-grained, detailed, fair, and practical detection models. We also highlight the difference between fake news detection and other related tasks, and the importance of NLP solutions for fake news detection.


A Benchmark Dataset for Learning to Intervene in Online Hate Speech
Jing Qian | Anna Bethke | Yinyin Liu | Elizabeth Belding | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Countering online hate speech is a critical yet challenging task, but one which can be aided by the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. Previous research has primarily focused on the development of NLP methods to automatically and effectively detect online hate speech while disregarding further action needed to calm and discourage individuals from using hate speech in the future. In addition, most existing hate speech datasets treat each post as an isolated instance, ignoring the conversational context. In this paper, we propose a novel task of generative hate speech intervention, where the goal is to automatically generate responses to intervene during online conversations that contain hate speech. As a part of this work, we introduce two fully-labeled large-scale hate speech intervention datasets collected from Gab and Reddit. These datasets provide conversation segments, hate speech labels, as well as intervention responses written by Mechanical Turk Workers. In this paper, we also analyze the datasets to understand the common intervention strategies and explore the performance of common automatic response generation methods on these new datasets to provide a benchmark for future research.

Learning to Decipher Hate Symbols
Jing Qian | Mai ElSherief | Elizabeth Belding | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Existing computational models to understand hate speech typically frame the problem as a simple classification task, bypassing the understanding of hate symbols (e.g., 14 words, kigy) and their secret connotations. In this paper, we propose a novel task of deciphering hate symbols. To do this, we leveraged the Urban Dictionary and collected a new, symbol-rich Twitter corpus of hate speech. We investigate neural network latent context models for deciphering hate symbols. More specifically, we study Sequence-to-Sequence models and show how they are able to crack the ciphers based on context. Furthermore, we propose a novel Variational Decipher and show how it can generalize better to unseen hate symbols in a more challenging testing setting.


Leveraging Intra-User and Inter-User Representation Learning for Automated Hate Speech Detection
Jing Qian | Mai ElSherief | Elizabeth Belding | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Hate speech detection is a critical, yet challenging problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Despite the existence of numerous studies dedicated to the development of NLP hate speech detection approaches, the accuracy is still poor. The central problem is that social media posts are short and noisy, and most existing hate speech detection solutions take each post as an isolated input instance, which is likely to yield high false positive and negative rates. In this paper, we radically improve automated hate speech detection by presenting a novel model that leverages intra-user and inter-user representation learning for robust hate speech detection on Twitter. In addition to the target Tweet, we collect and analyze the user’s historical posts to model intra-user Tweet representations. To suppress the noise in a single Tweet, we also model the similar Tweets posted by all other users with reinforced inter-user representation learning techniques. Experimentally, we show that leveraging these two representations can significantly improve the f-score of a strong bidirectional LSTM baseline model by 10.1%.

Hierarchical CVAE for Fine-Grained Hate Speech Classification
Jing Qian | Mai ElSherief | Elizabeth Belding | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Existing work on automated hate speech detection typically focuses on binary classification or on differentiating among a small set of categories. In this paper, we propose a novel method on a fine-grained hate speech classification task, which focuses on differentiating among 40 hate groups of 13 different hate group categories. We first explore the Conditional Variational Autoencoder (CVAE) as a discriminative model and then extend it to a hierarchical architecture to utilize the additional hate category information for more accurate prediction. Experimentally, we show that incorporating the hate category information for training can significantly improve the classification performance and our proposed model outperforms commonly-used discriminative models.