Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Bridging Human--Computer Interaction and Natural Language Processing

Su Lin Blodgett, Hal Daumé III, Michael Madaio, Ani Nenkova, Brendan O'Connor, Hanna Wallach, Qian Yang (Editors)

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Seattle, Washington
Association for Computational Linguistics
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Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Bridging Human--Computer Interaction and Natural Language Processing
Su Lin Blodgett | Hal Daumé III | Michael Madaio | Ani Nenkova | Brendan O'Connor | Hanna Wallach | Qian Yang

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Taxonomy Builder: a Data-driven and User-centric Tool for Streamlining Taxonomy Construction
Mihai Surdeanu | John Hungerford | Yee Seng Chan | Jessica MacBride | Benjamin Gyori | Andrew Zupon | Zheng Tang | Haoling Qiu | Bonan Min | Yan Zverev | Caitlin Hilverman | Max Thomas | Walter Andrews | Keith Alcock | Zeyu Zhang | Michael Reynolds | Steven Bethard | Rebecca Sharp | Egoitz Laparra

An existing domain taxonomy for normalizing content is often assumed when discussing approaches to information extraction, yet often in real-world scenarios there is none.When one does exist, as the information needs shift, it must be continually extended. This is a slow and tedious task, and one which does not scale well.Here we propose an interactive tool that allows a taxonomy to be built or extended rapidly and with a human in the loop to control precision. We apply insights from text summarization and information extraction to reduce the search space dramatically, then leverage modern pretrained language models to perform contextualized clustering of the remaining concepts to yield candidate nodes for the user to review. We show this allows a user to consider as many as 200 taxonomy concept candidates an hour, to quickly build or extend a taxonomy to better fit information needs.

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An Interactive Exploratory Tool for the Task of Hate Speech Detection
Angelina McMillan-Major | Amandalynne Paullada | Yacine Jernite

With the growth of Automatic Content Moderation (ACM) on widely used social media platforms, transparency into the design of moderation technology and policy is necessary for online communities to advocate for themselves when harms occur.In this work, we describe a suite of interactive modules to support the exploration of various aspects of this technology, and particularly of those components that rely on English models and datasets for hate speech detection, a subtask within ACM. We intend for this demo to support the various stakeholders of ACM in investigating the definitions and decisions that underpin current technologies such that those with technical knowledge and those with contextual knowledge may both better understand existing systems.

Design Considerations for an NLP-Driven Empathy and Emotion Interface for Clinician Training via Telemedicine
Roxana Girju | Marina Girju

As digital social platforms and mobile technologies become more prevalent and robust, the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in facilitating human communication will grow. This, in turn, will encourage development of intuitive, adaptive, and effective empathic AI interfaces that better address the needs of socially and culturally diverse communities. In this paper, we present several design considerations of an intelligent digital interface intended to guide the clinicians toward more empathetic communication. This approach allows various communities of practice to investigate how AI, on one side, and human communication and healthcare needs, on the other, can contribute to each other’s development.

Human-centered computing in legal NLP - An application to refugee status determination
Claire Barale

This paper proposes an approach to the design of an ethical human-AI reasoning support system for decision makers in refugee law. In the context of refugee status determination, practitioners mostly rely on text data. We therefore investigate human-AI cooperation in legal natural language processing. Specifically, we want to determine which design methods can be transposed to legal text analytics. Although little work has been done so far on human-centered design methods applicable to the legal domain, we assume that introducing iterative cooperation and user engagement in the design process is (1) a method to reduce technical limitations of an NLP system and (2) that it will help design more ethical and effective applications by taking users’ preferences and feedback into account. The proposed methodology is based on three main design steps: cognitive process formalization in models understandable by both humans and computers, speculative design of prototypes, and semi-directed interviews with a sample of potential users.

Let’s Chat: Understanding User Expectations in Socialbot Interactions
Elizabeth Soper | Erin Pacquetet | Sougata Saha | Souvik Das | Rohini Srihari

This paper analyzes data from the 2021 Amazon Alexa Prize Socialbot Grand Challenge 4, in order to better understand the differences between human-computer interactions (HCI) in a socialbot setting and conventional human-to-human interactions. We find that because socialbots are a new genre of HCI, we are still negotiating norms to guide interactions in this setting. We present several notable patterns in user behavior toward socialbots, which have important implications for guiding future work in the development of conversational agents.

Teaching Interactively to Learn Emotions in Natural Language
Rajesh Titung | Cecilia Alm

Motivated by prior literature, we provide a proof of concept simulation study for an understudied interactive machine learning method, machine teaching (MT), for the text-based emotion prediction task. We compare this method experimentally against a more well-studied technique, active learning (AL). Results show the strengths of both approaches over more resource-intensive offline supervised learning. Additionally, applying AL and MT to fine-tune a pre-trained model offers further efficiency gain. We end by recommending research directions which aim to empower users in the learning process.

Narrative Datasets through the Lenses of NLP and HCI
Sharifa Sultana | Renwen Zhang | Hajin Lim | Maria Antoniak

In this short paper, we compare existing value systems and approaches in NLP and HCI for collecting narrative data. Building on these parallel discussions, we shed light on the challenges facing some popular NLP dataset types, which we discuss these in relation to widely-used narrative-based HCI research methods; and we highlight points where NLP methods can broaden qualitative narrative studies. In particular, we point towards contextuality, positionality, dataset size, and open research design as central points of difference and windows for collaboration when studying narratives. Through the use case of narratives, this work contributes to a larger conversation regarding the possibilities for bridging NLP and HCI through speculative mixed-methods.

Towards a Deep Multi-layered Dialectal Language Analysis: A Case Study of African-American English
Jamell Dacon

Currently, natural language processing (NLP) models proliferate language discrimination leading to potentially harmful societal impacts as a result of biased outcomes. For example, part-of-speech taggers trained on Mainstream American English (MAE) produce non-interpretable results when applied to African American English (AAE) as a result of language features not seen during training. In this work, we incorporate a human-in-the-loop paradigm to gain a better understanding of AAE speakers’ behavior and their language use, and highlight the need for dialectal language inclusivity so that native AAE speakers can extensively interact with NLP systems while reducing feelings of disenfranchisement.