Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XVIII: Users and Providers Track

Janice Campbell, Ben Huyck, Stephen Larocca, Jay Marciano, Konstantin Savenkov, Alex Yanishevsky (Editors)

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Association for Machine Translation in the Americas
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Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XVIII: Users and Providers Track
Janice Campbell | Ben Huyck | Stephen Larocca | Jay Marciano | Konstantin Savenkov | Alex Yanishevsky

Roundtable: Digital Marketing Globalization at NetApp: A Case Study of Digital Transformation utilizing Neural Machine Translation
Edith Bendermacher

Roundtable: Neural Machine Translation at Ford Motor Company
Nestor Rychtyckyj

Roundtable: Salesforce NMT System: A Year Later
Raffaella Buschiazzo

Roundtable: Autodesk: Neural Machine Translation – Localization and beyond
Emanuele Dias

Neural Translator Designed to Protect the Eastern Border of the European Union
Artur Nowakowski | Krzysztof Jassem

This paper reports on a translation engine designed for the needs of the Polish State Border Guard. The engine is a component of the AI Searcher system, whose aim is to search for Internet texts, written in Polish, Russian, Ukrainian or Belarusian, which may lead to criminal acts at the eastern border of the European Union. The system is intended for Polish users, and the translation engine should serve to assist understanding of non-Polish documents. The engine was trained on general-domain texts. The adaptation for the criminal domain consisted in the appropriate translation of criminal terms and proper names, such as forenames, surnames and geographical objects. The translation process needs to take into account the rich inflection found in all of the languages of interest. To this end, a method based on constrained decoding that incorporates an inflected lexicon into a neural translation process was applied in the engine.

Corpus Creation and Evaluation for Speech-to-Text and Speech Translation
Corey Miller | Evelyne Tzoukermann | Jennifer Doyon | Elizabeth Mallard

The National Virtual Translation Center (NVTC) seeks to acquire human language technology (HLT) tools that will facilitate its mission to provide verbatim English translations of foreign language audio and video files. In the text domain, NVTC has been using translation memory (TM) for some time and has reported on the incorporation of machine translation (MT) into that workflow (Miller et al., 2020). While we have explored the use of speech-totext (STT) and speech translation (ST) in the past (Tzoukermann and Miller, 2018), we have now invested in the creation of a substantial human-made corpus to thoroughly evaluate alternatives. Results from our analysis of this corpus and the performance of HLT tools point the way to the most promising ones to deploy in our workflow.

From Research to Production: Fine-Grained Analysis of Terminology Integration
Toms Bergmanis | Mārcis Pinnis | Paula Reichenberg

Dynamic terminology integration in neural machine translation (NMT) is a sought-after feature of computer-aided translation tools among language service providers and small to medium businesses. Despite the recent surge in research on terminology integration in NMT, it still is seldom or inadequately supported in commercial machine translation solutions. In this presentation, we will share our experience of developing and deploying terminology integration capabilities for NMT systems in production. We will look at the three core tasks of terminology integration: terminology management, terminology identification, and translation with terminology. This talk will be insightful for NMT system developers, translators, terminologists, and anyone interested in translation projects.

Glossary functionality in commercial machine translation: does it help? A first step to identify best practices for a language service provider
Randy Scansani | Loïc Dugast

Recently, a number of commercial Machine Translation (MT) providers have started to offer glossary features allowing users to enforce terminology into the output of a generic model. However, to the best of our knowledge it is not clear how such features would impact terminology accuracy and the overall quality of the output. The present contribution aims at providing a first insight into the performance of the glossary-enhanced generic models offered by four providers. Our tests involve two different domains and language pairs, i.e. Sportswear En–Fr and Industrial Equipment De–En. The output of each generic model and of the glossaryenhanced one will be evaluated relying on Translation Error Rate (TER) to take into account the overall output quality and on accuracy to assess the compliance with the glossary. This is followed by a manual evaluation. The present contribution mainly focuses on understanding how these glossary features can be fruitfully exploited by language service providers (LSPs), especially in a scenario in which a customer glossary is already available and is added to the generic model as is.

Selecting the best data filtering method for NMT training
Fred Bane | Anna Zaretskaya

Performance of NMT systems has been proven to depend on the quality of the training data. In this paper we explore different open-source tools that can be used to score the quality of translation pairs, with the goal of obtaining clean corpora for training NMT models. We measure the performance of these tools by correlating their scores with human scores, as well as rank models trained on the resulting filtered datasets in terms of their performance on different test sets and MT performance metrics.

A Review for Large Volumes of Post-edited Data
Silvio Picinini

Interested in being more confident about the quality of your post-edited data? This is a session to learn how to create a Longitudinal Review that looks at specific aspects of quality in a systematic way, for the entire content and not just for a sample. Are you a project manager for a multilingual project? The Longitudinal Review can give insights to help project management, even if you are not a speaker of the target language. And it can help you detect issues that a Sample Review may not detect. Please come learn more about this new way to look at review.

Accelerated Human NMT Evaluation Approaches for NMT Workflow Integration
James Phillips

Attendees to this session will get a clear view into how neural machine translation is leveraged in a large-scale real-life scenario to make substantial cost savings in comparison to conventional approaches without compromising quality. This will include an overview of how quality is measured, when and why quality estimation is applied, what preparations are required to do so, and what attempts are made to minimize the amount of human effort involved. It will also be outlined as to what worked well and what pitfalls are to be avoided to give pointers to others who may be considering similar strategies.

MT Human Evaluation – Insights & Approaches
Paula Manzur

This session is designed to help companies and people in the business of translation evaluate MT output and to show how human translator feedback can be tweaked to make the process more objective and accurate. You will hear recommendations, insights, and takeaways on how to improve the procedure for human evaluation. When this is achieved, we can understand if the human eval study and machine metric result coheres. And we can think about what the future of translators looks like – the final “human touch” and automated MT review.”

A Rising Tide Lifts All Boats? Quality Correlation between Human Translation and Machine Assisted Translation
Evelyn Yang Garland | Rony Gao

Does the human who produces the best translation without Machine Translation (MT) also produce the best translation with the assistance of MT? Our empirical study has found a strong correlation between the quality of pure human translation (HT) and that of machine-assisted translation (MAT) produced by the same translator (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.85, p=0.007). Data from the study also indicates a more concentrated distribution of the MAT quality scores than that of the HT scores. Additional insights will also be discussed during the presentation. This study has two prominent features: the participation of professional translators (mostly ATA members, English-into-Chinese) as subjects, and the rigorous quality evaluation by multiple professional translators (all ATA certified) using ATA’s time-tested certification exam grading metrics. Despite a major limitation in sample size, our findings provide a strong indication of correlation between HT and MAT quality, adding to the body of evidence in support of further studies on larger scales.

Bad to the Bone: Predicting the Impact of Source on MT
Alex Yanishevsky

It’s a well-known truism that poorly written source has a profound negative effect on the quality of machine translation, drastically reduces the productivity of post-editors and impacts turnaround times. But what is bad and how bad is bad? Conversely, what are the features emblematic of good content and how good is good? The impact of source on MT is crucial since a lot of content is written by non-native authors, created by technical specialists for a non-technical audience and may not adhere to brand tone and voice. AI can be employed to identify these errors and predict ‘at-risk’ content prior to localization in a multitude of languages. The presentation will show how source files and even individual sentences within those source files can be analyzed for markers of complexity and readability and thus are more likely to cause mistranslations and omissions for machine translation and subsequent post-editing. Potential solutions will be explored such as rewriting the source to be in line with acceptable threshold criteria for each product and/or domain, re-routing to other machine translation engines better suited for the task at hand and building AI-based predictive models.

Machine Translation Post-Editing (MTPE) from the Perspective of Translation Trainees: Implications for Translation Pedagogy
Dominika Cholewska

This paper introduces data on translation trainees’ perceptions of the MTPE process and implications on training in this field. This study aims to analyse trainees’ performance of three MTPE tasks the English-Polish language pair and post-tasks interviews to determine the need to promote machine translation post-editing skills in educating translation students. Since very little information concerning MTPE training is available, this study may be found advantageous.

Using Raw MT to make essential information available for a diverse range of potential customers
Sabine Peng

This presentation will share how we use raw machine translation to reach more potential customers. The attendees will learn about the raw machine strategies and workflow, how to select languages and products through data analysis, how to evaluate the overall quality of documentation with raw machine translation. The attendees will also learn about the direction we are going, that is, collecting user feedback and optimizing raw machine translation, so to build a complete and sustainable closed loop.

Field Experiments of Real Time Foreign News Distribution Powered by MT
Keiji Yasuda | Ichiro Yamada | Naoaki Okazaki | Hideki Tanaka | Hidehiro Asaka | Takeshi Anzai | Fumiaki Sugaya

Field experiments on a foreign news distribution system using two key technologies are reported. The first technology is a summarization component, which is used for generating news headlines. This component is a transformer-based abstractive text summarization system which is trained to output headlines from the leading sentences of news articles. The second technology is machine translation (MT), which enables users to read foreign news articles in their mother language. Since the system uses MT, users can immediately access the latest foreign news. 139 Japanese LINE users participated in the field experiments for two weeks, viewing about 40,000 articles which had been translated from English to Japanese. We carried out surveys both during and after the experiments. According to the results, 79.3% of users evaluated the headlines as adequate, while 74.7% of users evaluated the automatically translated articles as intelligible. According to the post-experiment survey, 59.7% of users wished to continue using the system; 11.5% of users did not. We also report several statistics of the experiments.

A Common Machine Translation Post-Editing Training Protocol by GALA
Viveta Gene | Lucía Guerrero

Preserving high MT quality for content with inline tags
Konstantin Savenkov | Grigory Sapunov | Pavel Stepachev

Attendees will learn about how we use machine translation to provide targeted, high MT quality for content with inline tags. We offer a new and innovative approach to inserting tags into the translated text in a way that reliably preserves their quality. This process can achieve better MT quality and lower costs, as it is MT-independent, and can be used for all languages, MT engines, and use cases.

Early-stage development of the SignON application and open framework – challenges and opportunities
Dimitar Shterionov | John J O’Flaherty | Edward Keane | Connor O’Reilly | Marcello Paolo Scipioni | Marco Giovanelli | Matteo Villa

SignON is an EU Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation project, that is developing a smartphone application and an open framework to facilitate translation between different European sign, spoken and text languages. The framework will incorporate state of the art sign language recognition and presentation, speech processing technologies and, in its core, multi-modal, cross-language machine translation. The framework, dedicated to the computationally heavy tasks and distributed on the cloud powers the application – a lightweight app running on a standard mobile device. The application and framework are being researched, designed and developed through a co-creation user-centric approach with the European deaf and hard of hearing communities. In this session, the speakers will detail their progress, challenges and lessons learned in the early-stage development of the application and framework. They will also present their Agile DevOps approach and the next steps in the evolution of the SignON project.

Deploying MT Quality Estimation on a large scale: Lessons learned and open questions
Aleš Tamchyna

This talk will focus on Memsource’s experience implementing MT Quality Estimation on a large scale within a translation management system. We will cover the whole development journey: from our early experimentation and the challenges we faced adapting academic models for a real world setting, all the way through to the practical implementation. Since the launch of this feature, we’ve accumulated a significant amount of experience and feedback, which has informed our subsequent development. Lastly we will discuss several open questions regarding the future role of quality estimation in translation.

Validating Quality Estimation in a Computer-Aided Translation Workflow: Speed, Cost and Quality Trade-off
Fernando Alva-Manchego | Lucia Specia | Sara Szoc | Tom Vanallemeersch | Heidi Depraetere

In modern computer-aided translation workflows, Machine Translation (MT) systems are used to produce a draft that is then checked and edited where needed by human translators. In this scenario, a Quality Estimation (QE) tool can be used to score MT outputs, and a threshold on the QE scores can be applied to decide whether an MT output can be used as-is or requires human post-edition. While this could reduce cost and turnaround times, it could harm translation quality, as QE models are not 100% accurate. In the framework of the APE-QUEST project (Automated Post-Editing and Quality Estimation), we set up a case-study on the trade-off between speed, cost and quality, investigating the benefits of QE models in a real-world scenario, where we rely on end-user acceptability as quality metric. Using data in the public administration domain for English-Dutch and English-French, we experimented with two use cases: assimilation and dissemination. Results shed some light on how QE scores can be explored to establish thresholds that suit each use case and target language, and demonstrate the potential benefits of adding QE to a translation workflow.

Neural Translation for European Union (NTEU)
Mercedes García-Martínez | Laurent Bié | Aleix Cerdà | Amando Estela | Manuel Herranz | Rihards Krišlauks | Maite Melero | Tony O’Dowd | Sinead O’Gorman | Marcis Pinnis | Artūrs Stafanovič | Riccardo Superbo | Artūrs Vasiļevskis

The Neural Translation for the European Union (NTEU) engine farm enables direct machine translation for all 24 official languages of the European Union without the necessity to use a high-resourced language as a pivot. This amounts to a total of 552 translation engines for all combinations of the 24 languages. We have collected parallel data for all the language combinations publickly shared in The translation engines have been customized to domain,for the use of the European public administrations. The delivered engines will be published in the European Language Grid. In addition to the usual automatic metrics, all the engines have been evaluated by humans based on the direct assessment methodology. For this purpose, we built an open-source platform called MTET The evaluation shows that most of the engines reach high quality and get better scores compared to an external machine translation service in a blind evaluation setup.

A Data-Centric Approach to Real-World Custom NMT for Arabic
Rebecca Jonsson | Ruba Jaikat | Abdallah Nasir | Nour Al-Khdour | Sara Alisis

In this presentation, we will present our approach to taking Custom NMT to the next level by building tailor-made NMT to fit the needs of businesses seeking to scale in the Arabic-speaking world. In close collaboration with customers in the MENA region and with a deep understanding of their data, we work on building a variety of NMT models that accommodate to the unique challenges of the Arabic language. This session will provide insights into the challenges of acquiring, analyzing, and processing customer data in various sectors, as well as insights into how to best make use of this data to build high-quality Custom NMT models in English-Arabic. Feedback from usage of these models in production will be provided. Furthermore, we will show how to use our translation management system to make the most of the custom NMT, by leveraging the models, fine-tuning and continuing to improve them over time.

Building MT systems in low resourced languages for Public Sector users in Croatia, Iceland, Ireland, and Norway
Róisín Moran | Carla Para Escartín | Akshai Ramesh | Páraic Sheridan | Jane Dunne | Federico Gaspari | Sheila Castilho | Natalia Resende | Andy Way

When developing Machine Translation engines, low resourced language pairs tend to be in a disadvantaged position: less available data means that developing robust MT models can be more challenging.The EU-funded PRINCIPLE project aims at overcoming this challenge for four low resourced European languages: Norwegian, Croatian, Irish and Icelandic. This presentation will give an overview of the project, with a focus on the set of Public Sector users and their use cases for which we have developed MT solutions.We will discuss the range of language resources that have been gathered through contributions from public sector collaborators, and present the extensive evaluations that have been undertaken, including significant user evaluation of MT systems across all of the public sector participants in each of the four countries involved.

Using speech technology in the translation process workflow in international organizations: A quantitative and qualitative study
Pierrette Bouillon | Jeevanthi Liyanapathirana

In international organizations, the growing demand for translations has increased the need for post-editing. Different studies show that automatic speech recognition systems have the potential to increase the productivity of the translation process as well as the quality. In this talk, we will explore the possibilities of using speech in the translation process by conducting a post-editing experiment with three professional translators in an international organization. Our experiment consisted of comparing three translation methods: speaking the translation with MT as an inspiration (RESpeaking), post-editing the MT suggestions by typing (PE), and editing the MT suggestion using speech (SPE). BLEU and HTER scores were used to compare the three methods. Our study shows that translators did more edits under condition RES, whereas in SPE, the resulting translations were closer to the reference according to the BLEU score and required less edits. Time taken to translate was the least in SPE followed by PE, RES methods and the translators preferred using speech to typing.These results show the potential of speech when it is coupled with post-editing.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study conducted on using post-editing and speech together in large scale international organizations.

Multi-Domain Adaptation in Neural Machine Translation Through Multidimensional Tagging
Emmanouil Stergiadis | Satendra Kumar | Fedor Kovalev | Pavel Levin

Production NMT systems typically need to serve niche domains that are not covered by adequately large and readily available parallel corpora. As a result, practitioners often fine-tune general purpose models to each of the domains their organisation caters to. The number of domains however can often become large, which in combination with the number of languages that need serving can lead to an unscalable fleet of models to be developed and maintained. We propose Multi Dimensional Tagging, a method for fine-tuning a single NMT model on several domains simultaneously, thus drastically reducing development and maintenance costs. We run experiments where a single MDT model compares favourably to a set of SOTA specialist models, even when evaluated on the domain those baselines have been fine-tuned on. Besides BLEU, we report human evaluation results. MDT models are now live at, powering an MT engine that serves millions of translations a day in over 40 different languages.

cushLEPOR uses LABSE distilled knowledge to improve correlation with human translation evaluations
Gleb Erofeev | Irina Sorokina | Lifeng Han | Serge Gladkoff

Automatic MT evaluation metrics are indispensable for MT research. Augmented metrics such as hLEPOR include broader evaluation factors (recall and position difference penalty) in addition to the factors used in BLEU (sentence length, precision), and demonstrated higher accuracy. However, the obstacles preventing the wide use of hLEPOR were the lack of easy portable Python package and empirical weighting parameters that were tuned by manual work. This project addresses the above issues by offering a Python implementation of hLEPOR and automatic tuning of the parameters. We use existing translation memories (TM) as reference set and distillation modeling with LaBSE (Language-Agnostic BERT Sentence Embedding) to calibrate parameters for custom hLEPOR (cushLEPOR). cushLEPOR maximizes the correlation between hLEPOR and the distilling model similarity score towards reference. It can be used quickly and precisely to evaluate MT output from different engines, without need of manual weight tuning for optimization. In this session you will learn how to tune hLEPOR to obtain automatic custom-tuned cushLEPOR metric far more precise than BLEU. The method does not require costly human evaluations, existing TM is taken as a reference translation set, and cushLEPOR is created to select the best MT engine for the reference data-set.

A Synthesis of Human and Machine: Correlating “New” Automatic Evaluation Metrics with Human Assessments
Mara Nunziatini | Andrea Alfieri

The session will provide an overview of some of the new Machine Translation metrics available on the market, analyze if and how these new metrics correlate at a segment level to the results of Adequacy and Fluency Human Assessments, and how they compare against TER scores and Levenshtein Distance – two of our currently preferred metrics – as well as against each of the other. The information in this session will help to get a better understanding of their strengths and weaknesses and make informed decisions when it comes to forecasting MT production.

Lab vs. Production: Two Approaches to Productivity Evaluation for MTPE for LSP
Elena Murgolo

In the paper we propose both kind of tests as viable post-editing productivity evaluation solutions as they both deliver a clear overview of the difference in speed between HT and PE of the translators involved. The decision on whether to use the first approach or the second can be based on a number of factors, such as: availability of actual orders in the domain and language combination to be tested; time; availability of Post-editors in the domain and in the language combination to be tested. The aim of this paper will be to show that both methodologies can be useful in different settings for a preliminary evaluation of possible productivity gain with MTPE.