In the age of large transformer language models, linguistic evaluation play an important role in diagnosing models’ abilities and limitations on natural language understanding. However, current evaluation methods show some significant shortcomings. In particular, they do not provide insight into how well a language model captures distinct linguistic skills essential for language understanding and reasoning. Thus they fail to effectively map out the aspects of language understanding that remain challenging to existing models, which makes it hard to discover potential limitations in models and datasets. In this paper, we introduce Curriculum as a new format of NLI benchmark for evaluation of broad-coverage linguistic phenomena. Curriculum contains a collection of datasets that covers 36 types of major linguistic phenomena and an evaluation procedure for diagnosing how well a language model captures reasoning skills for distinct types of linguistic phenomena. We show that this linguistic-phenomena-driven benchmark can serve as an effective tool for diagnosing model behavior and verifying model learning quality. In addition, our experiments provide insight into the limitation of existing benchmark datasets and state-of-the-art models that may encourage future research on re-designing datasets, model architectures, and learning objectives.
Many state-of-art neural models designed for monotonicity reasoning perform poorly on downward inference. To address this shortcoming, we developed an attentive tree-structured neural network. It consists of a tree-based long-short-term-memory network (Tree-LSTM) with soft attention. It is designed to model the syntactic parse tree information from the sentence pair of a reasoning task. A self-attentive aggregator is used for aligning the representations of the premise and the hypothesis. We present our model and evaluate it using the Monotonicity Entailment Dataset (MED). We show and attempt to explain that our model outperforms existing models on MED.
Deep learning (DL) based language models achieve high performance on various benchmarks for Natural Language Inference (NLI). And at this time, symbolic approaches to NLI are receiving less attention. Both approaches (symbolic and DL) have their advantages and weaknesses. However, currently, no method combines them in a system to solve the task of NLI. To merge symbolic and deep learning methods, we propose an inference framework called NeuralLog, which utilizes both a monotonicity-based logical inference engine and a neural network language model for phrase alignment. Our framework models the NLI task as a classic search problem and uses the beam search algorithm to search for optimal inference paths. Experiments show that our joint logic and neural inference system improves accuracy on the NLI task and can achieve state-of-art accuracy on the SICK and MED datasets.
Dependency parsing is a tool widely used in the field of Natural language processing and computational linguistics. However, there is hardly any work that connects dependency parsing to monotonicity, which is an essential part of logic and linguistic semantics. In this paper, we present a system that automatically annotates monotonicity information based on Universal Dependency parse trees. Our system utilizes surface-level monotonicity facts about quantifiers, lexical items, and token-level polarity information. We compared our system’s performance with existing systems in the literature, including NatLog and ccg2mono, on a small evaluation dataset. Results show that our system outperforms NatLog and ccg2mono.