Yufei Chen


Parsing into Variable-in-situ Logico-Semantic Graphs
Yufei Chen | Weiwei Sun
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We propose variable-in-situ logico-semantic graphs to bridge the gap between semantic graph and logical form parsing. The new type of graph-based meaning representation allows us to include analysis for scope-related phenomena, such as quantification, negation and modality, in a way that is consistent with the state-of-the-art underspecification approach. Moreover, the well-formedness of such a graph is clear, since model-theoretic interpretation is available. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new perspective by developing a new state-of-the-art semantic parser for English Resource Semantics. At the core of this parser is a novel neural graph rewriting system which combines the strengths of Hyperedge Replacement Grammar, a knowledge-intensive model, and Graph Neural Networks, a data-intensive model. Our parser achieves an accuracy of 92.39% in terms of elementary dependency match, which is a 2.88 point improvement over the best data-driven model in the literature. The output of our parser is highly coherent: at least 91% graphs are valid, in that they allow at least one sound scope-resolved logical form.


Peking at MRP 2019: Factorization- and Composition-Based Parsing for Elementary Dependency Structures
Yufei Chen | Yajie Ye | Weiwei Sun
Proceedings of the Shared Task on Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing at the 2019 Conference on Natural Language Learning

We design, implement and evaluate two semantic parsers, which represent factorization- and composition-based approaches respectively, for Elementary Dependency Structures (EDS) at the CoNLL 2019 Shared Task on Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing. The detailed evaluation of the two parsers gives us a new perception about parsing into linguistically enriched meaning representations: current neural EDS parsers are able to reach an accuracy at the inter-annotator agreement level in the same-epoch-and-domain setup.

Parsing Chinese Sentences with Grammatical Relations
Weiwei Sun | Yufei Chen | Xiaojun Wan | Meichun Liu
Computational Linguistics, Volume 45, Issue 1 - March 2019

We report our work on building linguistic resources and data-driven parsers in the grammatical relation (GR) analysis for Mandarin Chinese. Chinese, as an analytic language, encodes grammatical information in a highly configurational rather than morphological way. Accordingly, it is possible and reasonable to represent almost all grammatical relations as bilexical dependencies. In this work, we propose to represent grammatical information using general directed dependency graphs. Both only-local and rich long-distance dependencies are explicitly represented. To create high-quality annotations, we take advantage of an existing TreeBank, namely, Chinese TreeBank (CTB), which is grounded on the Government and Binding theory. We define a set of linguistic rules to explore CTB’s implicit phrase structural information and build deep dependency graphs. The reliability of this linguistically motivated GR extraction procedure is highlighted by manual evaluation. Based on the converted corpus, data-driven, including graph- and transition-based, models are explored for Chinese GR parsing. For graph-based parsing, a new perspective, graph merging, is proposed for building flexible dependency graphs: constructing complex graphs via constructing simple subgraphs. Two key problems are discussed in this perspective: (1) how to decompose a complex graph into simple subgraphs, and (2) how to combine subgraphs into a coherent complex graph. For transition-based parsing, we introduce a neural parser based on a list-based transition system. We also discuss several other key problems, including dynamic oracle and beam search for neural transition-based parsing. Evaluation gauges how successful GR parsing for Chinese can be by applying data-driven models. The empirical analysis suggests several directions for future study.


Accurate SHRG-Based Semantic Parsing
Yufei Chen | Weiwei Sun | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We demonstrate that an SHRG-based parser can produce semantic graphs much more accurately than previously shown, by relating synchronous production rules to the syntacto-semantic composition process. Our parser achieves an accuracy of 90.35 for EDS (89.51 for DMRS) in terms of elementary dependency match, which is a 4.87 (5.45) point improvement over the best existing data-driven model, indicating, in our view, the importance of linguistically-informed derivation for data-driven semantic parsing. This accuracy is equivalent to that of English Resource Grammar guided models, suggesting that (recurrent) neural network models are able to effectively learn deep linguistic knowledge from annotations.

Pre- and In-Parsing Models for Neural Empty Category Detection
Yufei Chen | Yuanyuan Zhao | Weiwei Sun | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Motivated by the positive impact of empty category on syntactic parsing, we study neural models for pre- and in-parsing detection of empty category, which has not previously been investigated. We find several non-obvious facts: (a) BiLSTM can capture non-local contextual information which is essential for detecting empty categories, (b) even with a BiLSTM, syntactic information is still able to enhance the detection, and (c) automatic detection of empty categories improves parsing quality for overt words. Our neural ECD models outperform the prior state-of-the-art by significant margins.

Neural Maximum Subgraph Parsing for Cross-Domain Semantic Dependency Analysis
Yufei Chen | Sheng Huang | Fang Wang | Junjie Cao | Weiwei Sun | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

We present experiments for cross-domain semantic dependency analysis with a neural Maximum Subgraph parser. Our parser targets 1-endpoint-crossing, pagenumber-2 graphs which are a good fit to semantic dependency graphs, and utilizes an efficient dynamic programming algorithm for decoding. For disambiguation, the parser associates words with BiLSTM vectors and utilizes these vectors to assign scores to candidate dependencies. We conduct experiments on the data sets from SemEval 2015 as well as Chinese CCGBank. Our parser achieves very competitive results for both English and Chinese. To improve the parsing performance on cross-domain texts, we propose a data-oriented method to explore the linguistic generality encoded in English Resource Grammar, which is a precisionoriented, hand-crafted HPSG grammar, in an implicit way. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our data-oriented method across a wide range of conditions.