Off-topic spoken response detection, the task aiming at predicting whether a response is off-topic for the corresponding prompt, is important for an automated speaking assessment system. In many real-world educational applications, off-topic spoken response detectors are required to achieve high recall for off-topic responses not only on seen prompts but also on prompts that are unseen during training. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for off-topic spoken response detection with high off-topic recall on both seen and unseen prompts. We introduce a new model, Gated Convolutional Bidirectional Attention-based Model (GCBiA), which applies bi-attention mechanism and convolutions to extract topic words of prompts and key-phrases of responses, and introduces gated unit and residual connections between major layers to better represent the relevance of responses and prompts. Moreover, a new negative sampling method is proposed to augment training data. Experiment results demonstrate that our novel approach can achieve significant improvements in detecting off-topic responses with extremely high on-topic recall, for both seen and unseen prompts.
In this paper, we describe two systems we developed for the three tracks we have participated in the BEA-2019 GEC Shared Task. We investigate competitive classification models with bi-directional recurrent neural networks (Bi-RNN) and neural machine translation (NMT) models. For different tracks, we use ensemble systems to selectively combine the NMT models, the classification models, and some rules, and demonstrate that an ensemble solution can effectively improve GEC performance over single systems. Our GEC systems ranked the first in the Unrestricted Track, and the third in both the Restricted Track and the Low Resource Track.