Xinya Du


End-to-end Case-Based Reasoning for Commonsense Knowledge Base Completion
Zonglin Yang | Xinya Du | Erik Cambria | Claire Cardie
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Pretrained language models have been shown to store knowledge in their parameters and have achieved reasonable performance in commonsense knowledge base completion (CKBC) tasks. However, CKBC is knowledge-intensive and it is reported that pretrained language models’ performance in knowledge-intensive tasks are limited because of their incapability of accessing and manipulating knowledge. As a result, we hypothesize that providing retrieved passages that contain relevant knowledge as additional input to the CKBC task will improve performance. In particular, we draw insights from Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) – which aims to solve a new problem by reasoning with retrieved relevant cases, and investigate the direct application of it to CKBC. On two benchmark datasets, we demonstrate through automatic and human evaluations that our End-to-end Case-Based Reasoning Framework (ECBRF) generates more valid, informative, and novel knowledge than the state-of-the-art COMET model for CKBC in both the fully supervised and few-shot settings. We provide insights on why previous retrieval-based methods only achieve merely the same performance with COMET. From the perspective of CBR, our framework addresses a fundamental question on whether CBR methodology can be utilized to improve deep learning models.


RESIN-11: Schema-guided Event Prediction for 11 Newsworthy Scenarios
Xinya Du | Zixuan Zhang | Sha Li | Pengfei Yu | Hongwei Wang | Tuan Lai | Xudong Lin | Ziqi Wang | Iris Liu | Ben Zhou | Haoyang Wen | Manling Li | Darryl Hannan | Jie Lei | Hyounghun Kim | Rotem Dror | Haoyu Wang | Michael Regan | Qi Zeng | Qing Lyu | Charles Yu | Carl Edwards | Xiaomeng Jin | Yizhu Jiao | Ghazaleh Kazeminejad | Zhenhailong Wang | Chris Callison-Burch | Mohit Bansal | Carl Vondrick | Jiawei Han | Dan Roth | Shih-Fu Chang | Martha Palmer | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: System Demonstrations

We introduce RESIN-11, a new schema-guided event extraction&prediction framework that can be applied to a large variety of newsworthy scenarios. The framework consists of two parts: (1) an open-domain end-to-end multimedia multilingual information extraction system with weak-supervision and zero-shot learningbased techniques. (2) schema matching and schema-guided event prediction based on our curated schema library. We build a demo website based on our dockerized system and schema library publicly available for installation ( We also include a video demonstrating the system.

Automatic Error Analysis for Document-level Information Extraction
Aliva Das | Xinya Du | Barry Wang | Kejian Shi | Jiayuan Gu | Thomas Porter | Claire Cardie
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Document-level information extraction (IE) tasks have recently begun to be revisited in earnest using the end-to-end neural network techniques that have been successful on their sentence-level IE counterparts. Evaluation of the approaches, however, has been limited in a number of dimensions. In particular, the precision/recall/F1 scores typically reported provide few insights on the range of errors the models make. We build on the work of Kummerfeld and Klein (2013) to propose a transformation-based framework for automating error analysis in document-level event and (N-ary) relation extraction. We employ our framework to compare two state-of-the-art document-level template-filling approaches on datasets from three domains; and then, to gauge progress in IE since its inception 30 years ago, vs. four systems from the MUC-4 (1992) evaluation.

Dynamic Global Memory for Document-level Argument Extraction
Xinya Du | Sha Li | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Extracting informative arguments of events from news articles is a challenging problem in information extraction, which requires a global contextual understanding of each document. While recent work on document-level extraction has gone beyond single-sentence and increased the cross-sentence inference capability of end-to-end models, they are still restricted by certain input sequence length constraints and usually ignore the global context between events. To tackle this issue, we introduce a new global neural generation-based framework for document-level event argument extraction by constructing a document memory store to record the contextual event information and leveraging it to implicitly and explicitly help with decoding of arguments for later events. Empirical results show that our framework outperforms prior methods substantially and it is more robust to adversarially annotated examples with our constrained decoding design.

Retrieval-Augmented Generative Question Answering for Event Argument Extraction
Xinya Du | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Event argument extraction has long been studied as a sequential prediction problem with extractive-based methods, tackling each argument in isolation. Although recent work proposes generation-based methods to capture cross-argument dependency, they require generating and post-processing a complicated target sequence (template). Motivated by these observations and recent pretrained language models’ capabilities of learning from demonstrations. We propose a retrieval-augmented generative QA model (R-GQA) for event argument extraction. It retrieves the most similar QA pair and augments it as prompt to the current example’s context, then decodes the arguments as answers. Our approach outperforms substantially prior methods across various settings (i.e. fully supervised, domain transfer, and fewshot learning). Finally, we propose a clustering-based sampling strategy (JointEnc) and conduct a thorough analysis of how different strategies influence the few-shot learning performances.


QA-Driven Zero-shot Slot Filling with Weak Supervision Pretraining
Xinya Du | Luheng He | Qi Li | Dian Yu | Panupong Pasupat | Yuan Zhang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Slot-filling is an essential component for building task-oriented dialog systems. In this work, we focus on the zero-shot slot-filling problem, where the model needs to predict slots and their values, given utterances from new domains without training on the target domain. Prior methods directly encode slot descriptions to generalize to unseen slot types. However, raw slot descriptions are often ambiguous and do not encode enough semantic information, limiting the models’ zero-shot capability. To address this problem, we introduce QA-driven slot filling (QASF), which extracts slot-filler spans from utterances with a span-based QA model. We use a linguistically motivated questioning strategy to turn descriptions into questions, allowing the model to generalize to unseen slot types. Moreover, our QASF model can benefit from weak supervision signals from QA pairs synthetically generated from unlabeled conversations. Our full system substantially outperforms baselines by over 5% on the SNIPS benchmark.

GRIT: Generative Role-filler Transformers for Document-level Event Entity Extraction
Xinya Du | Alexander Rush | Claire Cardie
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

We revisit the classic problem of document-level role-filler entity extraction (REE) for template filling. We argue that sentence-level approaches are ill-suited to the task and introduce a generative transformer-based encoder-decoder framework (GRIT) that is designed to model context at the document level: it can make extraction decisions across sentence boundaries; is implicitly aware of noun phrase coreference structure, and has the capacity to respect cross-role dependencies in the template structure. We evaluate our approach on the MUC-4 dataset, and show that our model performs substantially better than prior work. We also show that our modeling choices contribute to model performance, e.g., by implicitly capturing linguistic knowledge such as recognizing coreferent entity mentions.

Few-shot Intent Classification and Slot Filling with Retrieved Examples
Dian Yu | Luheng He | Yuan Zhang | Xinya Du | Panupong Pasupat | Qi Li
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Few-shot learning arises in important practical scenarios, such as when a natural language understanding system needs to learn new semantic labels for an emerging, resource-scarce domain. In this paper, we explore retrieval-based methods for intent classification and slot filling tasks in few-shot settings. Retrieval-based methods make predictions based on labeled examples in the retrieval index that are similar to the input, and thus can adapt to new domains simply by changing the index without having to retrain the model. However, it is non-trivial to apply such methods on tasks with a complex label space like slot filling. To this end, we propose a span-level retrieval method that learns similar contextualized representations for spans with the same label via a novel batch-softmax objective. At inference time, we use the labels of the retrieved spans to construct the final structure with the highest aggregated score. Our method outperforms previous systems in various few-shot settings on the CLINC and SNIPS benchmarks.

Template Filling with Generative Transformers
Xinya Du | Alexander Rush | Claire Cardie
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Template filling is generally tackled by a pipeline of two separate supervised systems – one for role-filler extraction and another for template/event recognition. Since pipelines consider events in isolation, they can suffer from error propagation. We introduce a framework based on end-to-end generative transformers for this task (i.e., GTT). It naturally models the dependence between entities both within a single event and across the multiple events described in a document. Experiments demonstrate that this framework substantially outperforms pipeline-based approaches, and other neural end-to-end baselines that do not model between-event dependencies. We further show that our framework specifically improves performance on documents containing multiple events.


Event Extraction by Answering (Almost) Natural Questions
Xinya Du | Claire Cardie
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The problem of event extraction requires detecting the event trigger and extracting its corresponding arguments. Existing work in event argument extraction typically relies heavily on entity recognition as a preprocessing/concurrent step, causing the well-known problem of error propagation. To avoid this issue, we introduce a new paradigm for event extraction by formulating it as a question answering (QA) task that extracts the event arguments in an end-to-end manner. Empirical results demonstrate that our framework outperforms prior methods substantially; in addition, it is capable of extracting event arguments for roles not seen at training time (i.e., in a zero-shot learning setting).

Document-Level Event Role Filler Extraction using Multi-Granularity Contextualized Encoding
Xinya Du | Claire Cardie
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Few works in the literature of event extraction have gone beyond individual sentences to make extraction decisions. This is problematic when the information needed to recognize an event argument is spread across multiple sentences. We argue that document-level event extraction is a difficult task since it requires a view of a larger context to determine which spans of text correspond to event role fillers. We first investigate how end-to-end neural sequence models (with pre-trained language model representations) perform on document-level role filler extraction, as well as how the length of context captured affects the models’ performance. To dynamically aggregate information captured by neural representations learned at different levels of granularity (e.g., the sentence- and paragraph-level), we propose a novel multi-granularity reader. We evaluate our models on the MUC-4 event extraction dataset, and show that our best system performs substantially better than prior work. We also report findings on the relationship between context length and neural model performance on the task.

Leveraging Structured Metadata for Improving Question Answering on the Web
Xinya Du | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah | Adam Fourney | Robert Sim | Paul Bennett | Claire Cardie
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

We show that leveraging metadata information from web pages can improve the performance of models for answer passage selection/reranking. We propose a neural passage selection model that leverages metadata information with a fine-grained encoding strategy, which learns the representation for metadata predicates in a hierarchical way. The models are evaluated on the MS MARCO (Nguyen et al., 2016) and Recipe-MARCO datasets. Results show that our models significantly outperform baseline models, which do not incorporate metadata. We also show that the fine-grained encoding’s advantage over other strategies for encoding the metadata.

Improving Event Duration Prediction via Time-aware Pre-training
Zonglin Yang | Xinya Du | Alexander Rush | Claire Cardie
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

End-to-end models in NLP rarely encode external world knowledge about length of time. We introduce two effective models for duration prediction, which incorporate external knowledge by reading temporal-related news sentences (time-aware pre-training). Specifically, one model predicts the range/unit where the duration value falls in (R-PRED); and the other predicts the exact duration value (E-PRED). Our best model – E-PRED, substantially outperforms previous work, and captures duration information more accurately than R-PRED. We also demonstrate our models are capable of duration prediction in the unsupervised setting, outperforming the baselines.


Be Consistent! Improving Procedural Text Comprehension using Label Consistency
Xinya Du | Bhavana Dalvi | Niket Tandon | Antoine Bosselut | Wen-tau Yih | Peter Clark | Claire Cardie
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Our goal is procedural text comprehension, namely tracking how the properties of entities (e.g., their location) change with time given a procedural text (e.g., a paragraph about photosynthesis, a recipe). This task is challenging as the world is changing throughout the text, and despite recent advances, current systems still struggle with this task. Our approach is to leverage the fact that, for many procedural texts, multiple independent descriptions are readily available, and that predictions from them should be consistent (label consistency). We present a new learning framework that leverages label consistency during training, allowing consistency bias to be built into the model. Evaluation on a standard benchmark dataset for procedural text, ProPara (Dalvi et al., 2018), shows that our approach significantly improves prediction performance (F1) over prior state-of-the-art systems.


Harvesting Paragraph-level Question-Answer Pairs from Wikipedia
Xinya Du | Claire Cardie
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We study the task of generating from Wikipedia articles question-answer pairs that cover content beyond a single sentence. We propose a neural network approach that incorporates coreference knowledge via a novel gating mechanism. As compared to models that only take into account sentence-level information (Heilman and Smith, 2010; Du et al., 2017; Zhou et al., 2017), we find that the linguistic knowledge introduced by the coreference representation aids question generation significantly, producing models that outperform the current state-of-the-art. We apply our system (composed of an answer span extraction system and the passage-level QG system) to the 10,000 top ranking Wikipedia articles and create a corpus of over one million question-answer pairs. We provide qualitative analysis for the this large-scale generated corpus from Wikipedia.


Learning to Ask: Neural Question Generation for Reading Comprehension
Xinya Du | Junru Shao | Claire Cardie
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We study automatic question generation for sentences from text passages in reading comprehension. We introduce an attention-based sequence learning model for the task and investigate the effect of encoding sentence- vs. paragraph-level information. In contrast to all previous work, our model does not rely on hand-crafted rules or a sophisticated NLP pipeline; it is instead trainable end-to-end via sequence-to-sequence learning. Automatic evaluation results show that our system significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art rule-based system. In human evaluations, questions generated by our system are also rated as being more natural (i.e.,, grammaticality, fluency) and as more difficult to answer (in terms of syntactic and lexical divergence from the original text and reasoning needed to answer).

Identifying Where to Focus in Reading Comprehension for Neural Question Generation
Xinya Du | Claire Cardie
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

A first step in the task of automatically generating questions for testing reading comprehension is to identify question-worthy sentences, i.e. sentences in a text passage that humans find it worthwhile to ask questions about. We propose a hierarchical neural sentence-level sequence tagging model for this task, which existing approaches to question generation have ignored. The approach is fully data-driven — with no sophisticated NLP pipelines or any hand-crafted rules/features — and compares favorably to a number of baselines when evaluated on the SQuAD data set. When incorporated into an existing neural question generation system, the resulting end-to-end system achieves state-of-the-art performance for paragraph-level question generation for reading comprehension.