Xingxing Zhang


Attention Temperature Matters in Abstractive Summarization Distillation
Shengqiang Zhang | Xingxing Zhang | Hangbo Bao | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent progress of abstractive text summarization largely relies on large pre-trained sequence-to-sequence Transformer models, which are computationally expensive. This paper aims to distill these large models into smaller ones for faster inference and with minimal performance loss. Pseudo-labeling based methods are popular in sequence-to-sequence model distillation. In this paper, we find simply manipulating attention temperatures in Transformers can make pseudo labels easier to learn for student models. Our experiments on three summarization datasets show our proposed method consistently improves vanilla pseudo-labeling based methods. Further empirical analysis shows that both pseudo labels and summaries produced by our students are shorter and more abstractive.

Neural Label Search for Zero-Shot Multi-Lingual Extractive Summarization
Ruipeng Jia | Xingxing Zhang | Yanan Cao | Zheng Lin | Shi Wang | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In zero-shot multilingual extractive text summarization, a model is typically trained on English summarization dataset and then applied on summarization datasets of other languages. Given English gold summaries and documents, sentence-level labels for extractive summarization are usually generated using heuristics. However, these monolingual labels created on English datasets may not be optimal on datasets of other languages, for that there is the syntactic or semantic discrepancy between different languages. In this way, it is possible to translate the English dataset to other languages and obtain different sets of labels again using heuristics. To fully leverage the information of these different sets of labels, we propose NLSSum (Neural Label Search for Summarization), which jointly learns hierarchical weights for these different sets of labels together with our summarization model. We conduct multilingual zero-shot summarization experiments on MLSUM and WikiLingua datasets, and we achieve state-of-the-art results using both human and automatic evaluations across these two datasets.

Unsupervised Multi-Granularity Summarization
Ming Zhong | Yang Liu | Suyu Ge | Yuning Mao | Yizhu Jiao | Xingxing Zhang | Yichong Xu | Chenguang Zhu | Michael Zeng | Jiawei Han
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Text summarization is a user-preference based task, i.e., for one document, users often have different priorities for the summary. As a key aspect of customization in summarization, granularity is used to measure the semantic coverage between the summary and source document. However, developing systems that can generate summaries with customizable semantic coverage is still an under-explored topic. In this paper, we propose the first unsupervised multi-granularity summarization framework, GranuSum. We take events as the basic semantic units of the source documents and propose to rank these events by their salience. We also develop a model to summarize input documents with given events as anchors and hints. By inputting different numbers of events, GranuSum is capable of producing multi-granular summaries in an unsupervised manner. Meanwhile, we annotate a new benchmark GranuDUC that contains multiple summaries at different granularities for each document cluster. Experimental results confirm the substantial superiority of GranuSum on multi-granularity summarization over strong baselines. Furthermore, by exploiting the event information, GranuSum also exhibits state-of-the-art performance under the conventional unsupervised abstractive setting.


Unsupervised Fine-tuning for Text Clustering
Shaohan Huang | Furu Wei | Lei Cui | Xingxing Zhang | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Fine-tuning with pre-trained language models (e.g. BERT) has achieved great success in many language understanding tasks in supervised settings (e.g. text classification). However, relatively little work has been focused on applying pre-trained models in unsupervised settings, such as text clustering. In this paper, we propose a novel method to fine-tune pre-trained models unsupervisedly for text clustering, which simultaneously learns text representations and cluster assignments using a clustering oriented loss. Experiments on three text clustering datasets (namely TREC-6, Yelp, and DBpedia) show that our model outperforms the baseline methods and achieves state-of-the-art results.

Pre-training for Abstractive Document Summarization by Reinstating Source Text
Yanyan Zou | Xingxing Zhang | Wei Lu | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Abstractive document summarization is usually modeled as a sequence-to-sequence (SEQ2SEQ) learning problem. Unfortunately, training large SEQ2SEQ based summarization models on limited supervised summarization data is challenging. This paper presents three sequence-to-sequence pre-training (in shorthand, STEP) objectives which allow us to pre-train a SEQ2SEQ based abstractive summarization model on unlabeled text. The main idea is that, given an input text artificially constructed from a document, a model is pre-trained to reinstate the original document. These objectives include sentence reordering, next sentence generation and masked document generation, which have close relations with the abstractive document summarization task. Experiments on two benchmark summarization datasets (i.e., CNN/DailyMail and New York Times) show that all three objectives can improve performance upon baselines. Compared to models pre-trained on large-scale data (larger than 160GB), our method, with only 19GB text for pre-training, achieves comparable results, which demonstrates its effectiveness.

Improving the Efficiency of Grammatical Error Correction with Erroneous Span Detection and Correction
Mengyun Chen | Tao Ge | Xingxing Zhang | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We propose a novel language-independent approach to improve the efficiency for Grammatical Error Correction (GEC) by dividing the task into two subtasks: Erroneous Span Detection (ESD) and Erroneous Span Correction (ESC). ESD identifies grammatically incorrect text spans with an efficient sequence tagging model. Then, ESC leverages a seq2seq model to take the sentence with annotated erroneous spans as input and only outputs the corrected text for these spans. Experiments show our approach performs comparably to conventional seq2seq approaches in both English and Chinese GEC benchmarks with less than 50% time cost for inference.

Unsupervised Extractive Summarization by Pre-training Hierarchical Transformers
Shusheng Xu | Xingxing Zhang | Yi Wu | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Unsupervised extractive document summarization aims to select important sentences from a document without using labeled summaries during training. Existing methods are mostly graph-based with sentences as nodes and edge weights measured by sentence similarities. In this work, we find that transformer attentions can be used to rank sentences for unsupervised extractive summarization. Specifically, we first pre-train a hierarchical transformer model using unlabeled documents only. Then we propose a method to rank sentences using sentence-level self-attentions and pre-training objectives. Experiments on CNN/DailyMail and New York Times datasets show our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on unsupervised summarization. We also find in experiments that our model is less dependent on sentence positions. When using a linear combination of our model and a recent unsupervised model explicitly modeling sentence positions, we obtain even better results.


HIBERT: Document Level Pre-training of Hierarchical Bidirectional Transformers for Document Summarization
Xingxing Zhang | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Neural extractive summarization models usually employ a hierarchical encoder for document encoding and they are trained using sentence-level labels, which are created heuristically using rule-based methods. Training the hierarchical encoder with these inaccurate labels is challenging. Inspired by the recent work on pre-training transformer sentence encoders (Devlin et al., 2018), we propose Hibert (as shorthand for HIerachical Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) for document encoding and a method to pre-train it using unlabeled data. We apply the pre-trained Hibert to our summarization model and it outperforms its randomly initialized counterpart by 1.25 ROUGE on the CNN/Dailymail dataset and by 2.0 ROUGE on a version of New York Times dataset. We also achieve the state-of-the-art performance on these two datasets.

Automatic Grammatical Error Correction for Sequence-to-sequence Text Generation: An Empirical Study
Tao Ge | Xingxing Zhang | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models have achieved tremendous success in text generation tasks. However, there is no guarantee that they can always generate sentences without grammatical errors. In this paper, we present a preliminary empirical study on whether and how much automatic grammatical error correction can help improve seq2seq text generation. We conduct experiments across various seq2seq text generation tasks including machine translation, formality style transfer, sentence compression and simplification. Experiments show the state-of-the-art grammatical error correction system can improve the grammaticality of generated text and can bring task-oriented improvements in the tasks where target sentences are in a formal style.


Neural Latent Extractive Document Summarization
Xingxing Zhang | Mirella Lapata | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Extractive summarization models need sentence level labels, which are usually created with rule-based methods since most summarization datasets only have document summary pairs. These labels might be suboptimal. We propose a latent variable extractive model, where sentences are viewed as latent variables and sentences with activated variables are used to infer gold summaries. During training, the loss can come directly from gold summaries. Experiments on CNN/Dailymail dataset show our latent extractive model outperforms a strong extractive baseline trained on rule-based labels and also performs competitively with several recent models.


Dependency Parsing as Head Selection
Xingxing Zhang | Jianpeng Cheng | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers

Conventional graph-based dependency parsers guarantee a tree structure both during training and inference. Instead, we formalize dependency parsing as the problem of independently selecting the head of each word in a sentence. Our model which we call DENSE (as shorthand for Dependency Neural Selection) produces a distribution over possible heads for each word using features obtained from a bidirectional recurrent neural network. Without enforcing structural constraints during training, DeNSe generates (at inference time) trees for the overwhelming majority of sentences, while non-tree outputs can be adjusted with a maximum spanning tree algorithm. We evaluate DeNSe on four languages (English, Chinese, Czech, and German) with varying degrees of non-projectivity. Despite the simplicity of the approach, our parsers are on par with the state of the art.

Sentence Simplification with Deep Reinforcement Learning
Xingxing Zhang | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Sentence simplification aims to make sentences easier to read and understand. Most recent approaches draw on insights from machine translation to learn simplification rewrites from monolingual corpora of complex and simple sentences. We address the simplification problem with an encoder-decoder model coupled with a deep reinforcement learning framework. Our model, which we call DRESS (as shorthand for Deep REinforcement Sentence Simplification), explores the space of possible simplifications while learning to optimize a reward function that encourages outputs which are simple, fluent, and preserve the meaning of the input. Experiments on three datasets demonstrate that our model outperforms competitive simplification systems.

UParse: the Edinburgh system for the CoNLL 2017 UD shared task
Clara Vania | Xingxing Zhang | Adam Lopez
Proceedings of the CoNLL 2017 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies

This paper presents our submissions for the CoNLL 2017 UD Shared Task. Our parser, called UParse, is based on a neural network graph-based dependency parser. The parser uses features from a bidirectional LSTM to to produce a distribution over possible heads for each word in the sentence. To allow transfer learning for low-resource treebanks and surprise languages, we train several multilingual models for related languages, grouped by their genus and language families. Out of 33 participants, our system achieves rank 9th in the main results, with 75.49 UAS and 68.87 LAS F-1 scores (average across 81 treebanks).


Top-down Tree Long Short-Term Memory Networks
Xingxing Zhang | Liang Lu | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies


Chinese Poetry Generation with Recurrent Neural Networks
Xingxing Zhang | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)


Towards Accurate Distant Supervision for Relational Facts Extraction
Xingxing Zhang | Jianwen Zhang | Junyu Zeng | Jun Yan | Zheng Chen | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)