Keyphrase generation aims to automatically generate short phrases summarizing an input document. The recently emerged ONE2SET paradigm (Ye et al., 2021) generates keyphrases as a set and has achieved competitive performance. Nevertheless, we observe serious calibration errors outputted by ONE2SET, especially in the over-estimation of ∅ token (means “no corresponding keyphrase”). In this paper, we deeply analyze this limitation and identify two main reasons behind: 1) the parallel generation has to introduce excessive ∅ as padding tokens into training instances; and 2) the training mechanism assigning target to each slot is unstable and further aggravates the ∅ token over-estimation. To make the model well-calibrated, we propose WR-ONE2SET which extends ONE2SET with an adaptive instance-level cost Weighting strategy and a target Re-assignment mechanism. The former dynamically penalizes the over-estimated slots for different instances thus smoothing the uneven training distribution. The latter refines the original inappropriate assignment and reduces the supervisory signals of over-estimated slots. Experimental results on commonly-used datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of our proposed paradigm.
This paper presents Tencent’s submission to the WMT20 Quality Estimation (QE) Shared Task: Sentence-Level Post-editing Effort for English-Chinese in Task 2. Our system ensembles two architectures, XLM-based and Transformer-based Predictor-Estimator models. For the XLM-based Predictor-Estimator architecture, the predictor produces two types of contextualized token representations, i.e., masked XLM and non-masked XLM; the LSTM-estimator and Transformer-estimator employ two effective strategies, top-K and multi-head attention, to enhance the sentence feature representation. For Transformer-based Predictor-Estimator architecture, we improve a top-performing model by conducting three modifications: using multi-decoding in machine translation module, creating a new model by replacing the transformer-based predictor with XLM-based predictor, and finally integrating two models by a weighted average. Our submission achieves a Pearson correlation of 0.664, ranking first (tied) on English-Chinese.