Academic research is an exploratory activity to discover new solutions to problems. By this nature, academic research works perform literature reviews to distinguish their novelties from prior work. In natural language processing, this literature review is usually conducted under the “Related Work” section. The task of related work generation aims to automatically generate the related work section given the rest of the research paper and a list of papers to cite. Prior work on this task has focused on the sentence as the basic unit of generation, neglecting the fact that related work sections consist of variable length text fragments derived from different information sources. As a first step toward a linguistically-motivated related work generation framework, we present a Citation Oriented Related Work Annotation (CORWA) dataset that labels different types of citation text fragments from different information sources. We train a strong baseline model that automatically tags the CORWA labels on massive unlabeled related work section texts. We further suggest a novel framework for human-in-the-loop, iterative, abstractive related work generation.
Evidence plays a crucial role in any biomedical research narrative, providing justification for some claims and refutation for others. We seek to build models of scientific argument using information extraction methods from full-text papers. We present the capability of automatically extracting text fragments from primary research papers that describe the evidence presented in that paper’s figures, which arguably provides the raw material of any scientific argument made within the paper. We apply richly contextualized deep representation learning pre-trained on biomedical domain corpus to the analysis of scientific discourse structures and the extraction of “evidence fragments” (i.e., the text in the results section describing data presented in a specified subfigure) from a set of biomedical experimental research articles. We first demonstrate our state-of-the-art scientific discourse tagger on two scientific discourse tagging datasets and its transferability to new datasets. We then show the benefit of leveraging scientific discourse tags for downstream tasks such as claim-extraction and evidence fragment detection. Our work demonstrates the potential of using evidence fragments derived from figure spans for improving the quality of scientific claims by cataloging, indexing and reusing evidence fragments as independent documents.
Existing natural language processing systems are vulnerable to noisy inputs resulting from misspellings. On the contrary, humans can easily infer the corresponding correct words from their misspellings and surrounding context. Inspired by this, we address the stand-alone spelling correction problem, which only corrects the spelling of each token without additional token insertion or deletion, by utilizing both spelling information and global context representations. We present a simple yet powerful solution that jointly detects and corrects misspellings as a sequence labeling task by fine-turning a pre-trained language model. Our solution outperform the previous state-of-the-art result by 12.8% absolute F0.5 score.