Svitlana Vakulenko


Neural Ranking with Weak Supervision for Open-Domain Question Answering : A Survey
Xiaoyu Shen | Svitlana Vakulenko | Marco Del Tredici | Gianni Barlacchi | Bill Byrne | Adria De Gispert
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

Neural ranking (NR) has become a key component for open-domain question-answering in order to access external knowledge. However, training a good NR model requires substantial amounts of relevance annotations, which is very costly to scale. To address this, a growing body of research works have been proposed to reduce the annotation cost by training the NR model with weak supervision (WS) instead. These works differ in what resources they require and employ a diverse set of WS signals to train the model. Understanding such differences is crucial for choosing the right WS technique. To facilitate this understanding, we provide a structured overview of standard WS signals used for training a NR model. Based on their required resources, we divide them into three main categories: (1) only documents are needed; (2) documents and questions are needed; and (3) documents and question-answer pairs are needed. For every WS signal, we review its general idea and choices. Promising directions are outlined for future research.


SCAI-QReCC Shared Task on Conversational Question Answering
Svitlana Vakulenko | Johannes Kiesel | Maik Fröbe
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Search-Oriented Conversational AI (SCAI) is an established venue that regularly puts a spotlight upon the recent work advancing the field of conversational search. SCAI’21 was organised as an independent online event and featured a shared task on conversational question answering, on which this paper reports. The shared task featured three subtasks that correspond to three steps in conversational question answering: question rewriting, passage retrieval, and answer generation. This report discusses each subtask, but emphasizes the answer generation subtask as it attracted the most attention from the participants and we identified evaluation of answer correctness in the conversational settings as a major challenge and acurrent research gap. Alongside the automatic evaluation, we conducted two crowdsourcing experiments to collect annotations for answer plausibility and faithfulness. As a result of this shared task, the original conversational QA dataset used for evaluation was further extended with alternative correct answers produced by the participant systems.


Combining Lexical and Dense Retrieval for Computationally Efficient Multi-hop Question Answering
Georgios Sidiropoulos | Nikos Voskarides | Svitlana Vakulenko | Evangelos Kanoulas
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing

In simple open-domain question answering (QA), dense retrieval has become one of the standard approaches for retrieving the relevant passages to infer an answer. Recently, dense retrieval also achieved state-of-the-art results in multi-hop QA, where aggregating information from multiple pieces of information and reasoning over them is required. Despite their success, dense retrieval methods are computationally intensive, requiring multiple GPUs to train. In this work, we introduce a hybrid (lexical and dense) retrieval approach that is highly competitive with the state-of-the-art dense retrieval models, while requiring substantially less computational resources. Additionally, we provide an in-depth evaluation of dense retrieval methods on limited computational resource settings, something that is missing from the current literature.

Open-Domain Question Answering Goes Conversational via Question Rewriting
Raviteja Anantha | Svitlana Vakulenko | Zhucheng Tu | Shayne Longpre | Stephen Pulman | Srinivas Chappidi
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We introduce a new dataset for Question Rewriting in Conversational Context (QReCC), which contains 14K conversations with 80K question-answer pairs. The task in QReCC is to find answers to conversational questions within a collection of 10M web pages (split into 54M passages). Answers to questions in the same conversation may be distributed across several web pages. QReCC provides annotations that allow us to train and evaluate individual subtasks of question rewriting, passage retrieval and reading comprehension required for the end-to-end conversational question answering (QA) task. We report the effectiveness of a strong baseline approach that combines the state-of-the-art model for question rewriting, and competitive models for open-domain QA. Our results set the first baseline for the QReCC dataset with F1 of 19.10, compared to the human upper bound of 75.45, indicating the difficulty of the setup and a large room for improvement.

Robustness Evaluation of Entity Disambiguation Using Prior Probes: the Case of Entity Overshadowing
Vera Provatorova | Samarth Bhargav | Svitlana Vakulenko | Evangelos Kanoulas
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Entity disambiguation (ED) is the last step of entity linking (EL), when candidate entities are reranked according to the context they appear in. All datasets for training and evaluating models for EL consist of convenience samples, such as news articles and tweets, that propagate the prior probability bias of the entity distribution towards more frequently occurring entities. It was shown that the performance of the EL systems on such datasets is overestimated since it is possible to obtain higher accuracy scores by merely learning the prior. To provide a more adequate evaluation benchmark, we introduce the ShadowLink dataset, which includes 16K short text snippets annotated with entity mentions. We evaluate and report the performance of popular EL systems on the ShadowLink benchmark. The results show a considerable difference in accuracy between more and less common entities for all of the EL systems under evaluation, demonstrating the effect of prior probability bias and entity overshadowing.


pdf bib
A Wrong Answer or a Wrong Question? An Intricate Relationship between Question Reformulation and Answer Selection in Conversational Question Answering
Svitlana Vakulenko | Shayne Longpre | Zhucheng Tu | Raviteja Anantha
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Search-Oriented Conversational AI (SCAI)

The dependency between an adequate question formulation and correct answer selection is a very intriguing but still underexplored area. In this paper, we show that question rewriting (QR) of the conversational context allows to shed more light on this phenomenon and also use it to evaluate robustness of different answer selection approaches. We introduce a simple framework that enables an automated analysis of the conversational question answering (QA) performance using question rewrites, and present the results of this analysis on the TREC CAsT and QuAC (CANARD) datasets. Our experiments uncover sensitivity to question formulation of the popular state-of-the-art question answering approaches. Our results demonstrate that the reading comprehension model is insensitive to question formulation, while the passage ranking changes dramatically with a little variation in the input question. The benefit of QR is that it allows us to pinpoint and group such cases automatically. We show how to use this methodology to verify whether QA models are really learning the task or just finding shortcuts in the dataset, and better understand the frequent types of error they make.


Character-based Neural Embeddings for Tweet Clustering
Svitlana Vakulenko | Lyndon Nixon | Mihai Lupu
Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media

In this paper we show how the performance of tweet clustering can be improved by leveraging character-based neural networks. The proposed approach overcomes the limitations related to the vocabulary explosion in the word-based models and allows for the seamless processing of the multilingual content. Our evaluation results and code are available on-line: