Shweta Garg


ChemNER: Fine-Grained Chemistry Named Entity Recognition with Ontology-Guided Distant Supervision
Xuan Wang | Vivian Hu | Xiangchen Song | Shweta Garg | Jinfeng Xiao | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Scientific literature analysis needs fine-grained named entity recognition (NER) to provide a wide range of information for scientific discovery. For example, chemistry research needs to study dozens to hundreds of distinct, fine-grained entity types, making consistent and accurate annotation difficult even for crowds of domain experts. On the other hand, domain-specific ontologies and knowledge bases (KBs) can be easily accessed, constructed, or integrated, which makes distant supervision realistic for fine-grained chemistry NER. In distant supervision, training labels are generated by matching mentions in a document with the concepts in the knowledge bases (KBs). However, this kind of KB-matching suffers from two major challenges: incomplete annotation and noisy annotation. We propose ChemNER, an ontology-guided, distantly-supervised method for fine-grained chemistry NER to tackle these challenges. It leverages the chemistry type ontology structure to generate distant labels with novel methods of flexible KB-matching and ontology-guided multi-type disambiguation. It significantly improves the distant label generation for the subsequent sequence labeling model training. We also provide an expert-labeled, chemistry NER dataset with 62 fine-grained chemistry types (e.g., chemical compounds and chemical reactions). Experimental results show that ChemNER is highly effective, outperforming substantially the state-of-the-art NER methods (with .25 absolute F1 score improvement).


Improving Answer Selection and Answer Triggering using Hard Negatives
Sawan Kumar | Shweta Garg | Kartik Mehta | Nikhil Rasiwasia
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

In this paper, we establish the effectiveness of using hard negatives, coupled with a siamese network and a suitable loss function, for the tasks of answer selection and answer triggering. We show that the choice of sampling strategy is key for achieving improved performance on these tasks. Evaluating on recent answer selection datasets - InsuranceQA, SelQA, and an internal QA dataset, we show that using hard negatives with relatively simple model architectures (bag of words and LSTM-CNN) drives significant performance gains. On InsuranceQA, this strategy alone improves over previously reported results by a minimum of 1.6 points in P@1. Using hard negatives with a Transformer encoder provides a further improvement of 2.3 points. Further, we propose to use quadruplet loss for answer triggering, with the aim of producing globally meaningful similarity scores. We show that quadruplet loss function coupled with the selection of hard negatives enables bag-of-words models to improve F1 score by 2.3 points over previous baselines, on SelQA answer triggering dataset. Our results provide key insights into answer selection and answer triggering tasks.


CVBed: Structuring CVs usingWord Embeddings
Shweta Garg | Sudhanshu S Singh | Abhijit Mishra | Kuntal Dey
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Automatic analysis of curriculum vitae (CVs) of applicants is of tremendous importance in recruitment scenarios. The semi-structuredness of CVs, however, makes CV processing a challenging task. We propose a solution towards transforming CVs to follow a unified structure, thereby, paving ways for smoother CV analysis. The problem of restructuring is posed as a section relabeling problem, where each section of a given CV gets reassigned to a predefined label. Our relabeling method relies on semantic relatedness computed between section header, content and labels, based on phrase-embeddings learned from a large pool of CVs. We follow different heuristics to measure semantic relatedness. Our best heuristic achieves an F-score of 93.17% on a test dataset with gold-standard labels obtained using manual annotation.