Shuo Wang


MSP: Multi-Stage Prompting for Making Pre-trained Language Models Better Translators
Zhixing Tan | Xiangwen Zhang | Shuo Wang | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Prompting has recently been shown as a promising approach for applying pre-trained language models to perform downstream tasks. We present Multi-Stage Prompting, a simple and automatic approach for leveraging pre-trained language models to translation tasks. To better mitigate the discrepancy between pre-training and translation, MSP divides the translation process via pre-trained language models into three separate stages: the encoding stage, the re-encoding stage, and the decoding stage. During each stage, we independently apply different continuous prompts for allowing pre-trained language models better shift to translation tasks. We conduct extensive experiments on three translation tasks. Experiments show that our method can significantly improve the translation performance of pre-trained language models.

Integrating Vectorized Lexical Constraints for Neural Machine Translation
Shuo Wang | Zhixing Tan | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Lexically constrained neural machine translation (NMT), which controls the generation of NMT models with pre-specified constraints, is important in many practical scenarios. Due to the representation gap between discrete constraints and continuous vectors in NMT models, most existing works choose to construct synthetic data or modify the decoding algorithm to impose lexical constraints, treating the NMT model as a black box. In this work, we propose to open this black box by directly integrating the constraints into NMT models. Specifically, we vectorize source and target constraints into continuous keys and values, which can be utilized by the attention modules of NMT models. The proposed integration method is based on the assumption that the correspondence between keys and values in attention modules is naturally suitable for modeling constraint pairs. Experimental results show that our method consistently outperforms several representative baselines on four language pairs, demonstrating the superiority of integrating vectorized lexical constraints.

A Template-based Method for Constrained Neural Machine Translation
Shuo Wang | Peng Li | Zhixing Tan | Zhaopeng Tu | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Machine translation systems are expected to cope with various types of constraints in many practical scenarios. While neural machine translation (NMT) has achieved strong performance in unconstrained cases, it is non-trivial to impose pre-specified constraints into the translation process of NMT models. Although many approaches have been proposed to address this issue, most existing methods can not satisfy the following three desiderata at the same time: (1) high translation quality, (2) high match accuracy, and (3) low latency. In this work, we propose a template-based method that can yield results with high translation quality and match accuracy and the inference speed of our method is comparable with unconstrained NMT models. Our basic idea is to rearrange the generation of constrained and unconstrained tokens through a template. Our method does not require any changes in the model architecture and the decoding algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed template-based approach can outperform several representative baselines in both lexically and structurally constrained translation tasks.


On the Language Coverage Bias for Neural Machine Translation
Shuo Wang | Zhaopeng Tu | Zhixing Tan | Shuming Shi | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


THUMT: An Open-Source Toolkit for Neural Machine Translation
Zhixing Tan | Jiacheng Zhang | Xuancheng Huang | Gang Chen | Shuo Wang | Maosong Sun | Huanbo Luan | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (Volume 1: Research Track)

On the Inference Calibration of Neural Machine Translation
Shuo Wang | Zhaopeng Tu | Shuming Shi | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Confidence calibration, which aims to make model predictions equal to the true correctness measures, is important for neural machine translation (NMT) because it is able to offer useful indicators of translation errors in the generated output. While prior studies have shown that NMT models trained with label smoothing are well-calibrated on the ground-truth training data, we find that miscalibration still remains a severe challenge for NMT during inference due to the discrepancy between training and inference. By carefully designing experiments on three language pairs, our work provides in-depth analyses of the correlation between calibration and translation performance as well as linguistic properties of miscalibration and reports a number of interesting findings that might help humans better analyze, understand and improve NMT models. Based on these observations, we further propose a new graduated label smoothing method that can improve both inference calibration and translation performance.


Improving Back-Translation with Uncertainty-based Confidence Estimation
Shuo Wang | Yang Liu | Chao Wang | Huanbo Luan | Maosong Sun
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

While back-translation is simple and effective in exploiting abundant monolingual corpora to improve low-resource neural machine translation (NMT), the synthetic bilingual corpora generated by NMT models trained on limited authentic bilingual data are inevitably noisy. In this work, we propose to quantify the confidence of NMT model predictions based on model uncertainty. With word- and sentence-level confidence measures based on uncertainty, it is possible for back-translation to better cope with noise in synthetic bilingual corpora. Experiments on Chinese-English and English-German translation tasks show that uncertainty-based confidence estimation significantly improves the performance of back-translation.


ScholarGraph:a Chinese Knowledge Graph of Chinese Scholars
Shuo Wang | Zehui Hao | Xiaofeng Meng | Qiuyue Wang
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)