Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) task consists of three typical subtasks: aspect term extraction, opinion term extraction, and sentiment polarity classification. These three subtasks are usually performed jointly to save resources and reduce the error propagation in the pipeline. However, most of the existing joint models only focus on the benefits of encoder sharing between subtasks but ignore the difference. Therefore, we propose a joint ABSA model, which not only enjoys the benefits of encoder sharing but also focuses on the difference to improve the effectiveness of the model. In detail, we introduce a dual-encoder design, in which a pair encoder especially focuses on candidate aspect-opinion pair classification, and the original encoder keeps attention on sequence labeling. Empirical results show that our proposed model shows robustness and significantly outperforms the previous state-of-the-art on four benchmark datasets.
This paper reports the first study on automatic generation of distractors for fill-in-the-blank items for learning Chinese vocabulary. We investigate the quality of distractors generated by a number of criteria, including part-of-speech, difficulty level, spelling, word co-occurrence and semantic similarity. Evaluations show that a semantic similarity measure, based on the word2vec model, yields distractors that are significantly more plausible than those generated by baseline methods.
Fill-in-the-blank items are a common form of exercise in computer-assisted language learning systems. To automatically generate an effective item, the system must be able to select a high-quality carrier sentence that illustrates the usage of the target word. Previous approaches for carrier sentence selection have considered sentence length, vocabulary difficulty, the position of the target word and the presence of finite verbs. This paper investigates the utility of word co-occurrence statistics and lexical similarity as selection criteria. In an evaluation on generating fill-in-the-blank items for learning Chinese as a foreign language, we show that these two criteria can improve carrier sentence quality.
We present a mobile app that provides a reading environment for learners of Chinese as a foreign language. The app includes a text database that offers over 500K articles from Chinese Wikipedia. These articles have been word-segmented; each word is linked to its entry in a Chinese-English dictionary, and to automatically-generated review exercises. The app estimates the reading proficiency of the user based on a “to-learn” list of vocabulary items. It automatically constructs and maintains this list by tracking the user’s dictionary lookup behavior and performance in review exercises. When a user searches for articles to read, search results are filtered such that the proportion of unknown words does not exceed a user-specified threshold.