Sangwhan Moon


Parameter-Efficient Korean Character-Level Language Modeling
Marco Cognetta | Sangwhan Moon | Lawrence Wolf-sonkin | Naoaki Okazaki
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Character-level language modeling has been shown empirically to perform well on highly agglutinative or morphologically rich languages while using only a small fraction of the parameters required by (sub)word models. Korean fits nicely into this framework, except that, like other CJK languages, it has a very large character vocabulary of 11,172 unique syllables. However, unlike Japanese Kanji and Chinese Hanzi, each Korean syllable can be uniquely factored into a small set of subcharacters, called jamo. We explore a “three-hot” scheme, where we exploit the decomposability of Korean characters to model at the syllable level but using only jamo-level representations. We find that our three-hot embedding and decoding scheme alleviates the two major issues with prior syllable- and jamo-level models. Namely, it requires fewer than 1% of the embedding parameters of a syllable model, and it does not require tripling the sequence length, as with jamo models. In addition, it addresses a theoretical flaw in a prior three-hot modeling scheme. Our experiments show that, even when reducing the number of embedding parameters by 99.6% (from 11.4M to just 36k), our model suffers no loss in translation quality compared to the baseline syllable model.


OpenKorPOS: Democratizing Korean Tokenization with Voting-Based Open Corpus Annotation
Sangwhan Moon | Won Ik Cho | Hye Joo Han | Naoaki Okazaki | Nam Soo Kim
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Korean is a language with complex morphology that uses spaces at larger-than-word boundaries, unlike other East-Asian languages. While morpheme-based text generation can provide significant semantic advantages compared to commonly used character-level approaches, Korean morphological analyzers only provide a sequence of morpheme-level tokens, losing information in the tokenization process. Two crucial issues are the loss of spacing information and subcharacter level morpheme normalization, both of which make the tokenization result challenging to reconstruct the original input string, deterring the application to generative tasks. As this problem originates from the conventional scheme used when creating a POS tagging corpus, we propose an improvement to the existing scheme, which makes it friendlier to generative tasks. On top of that, we suggest a fully-automatic annotation of a corpus by leveraging public analyzers. We vote the surface and POS from the outcome and fill the sequence with the selected morphemes, yielding tokenization with a decent quality that incorporates space information. Our scheme is verified via an evaluation done on an external corpus, and subsequently, it is adapted to Korean Wikipedia to construct an open, permissive resource. We compare morphological analyzer performance trained on our corpus with existing methods, then perform an extrinsic evaluation on a downstream task.

Learning How to Translate North Korean through South Korean
Hwichan Kim | Sangwhan Moon | Naoaki Okazaki | Mamoru Komachi
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

South and North Korea both use the Korean language. However, Korean NLP research has focused on South Korean only, and existing NLP systems of the Korean language, such as neural machine translation (NMT) models, cannot properly handle North Korean inputs. Training a model using North Korean data is the most straightforward approach to solving this problem, but there is insufficient data to train NMT models. In this study, we create data for North Korean NMT models using a comparable corpus. First, we manually create evaluation data for automatic alignment and machine translation, and then, investigate automatic alignment methods suitable for North Korean. Finally, we show that a model trained by North Korean bilingual data without human annotation significantly boosts North Korean translation accuracy compared to existing South Korean models in zero-shot settings.

StyleKQC: A Style-Variant Paraphrase Corpus for Korean Questions and Commands
Won Ik Cho | Sangwhan Moon | Jongin Kim | Seokmin Kim | Nam Soo Kim
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Paraphrasing is often performed with less concern for controlled style conversion. Especially for questions and commands, style-variant paraphrasing can be crucial in tone and manner, which also matters with industrial applications such as dialog systems. In this paper, we attack this issue with a corpus construction scheme that simultaneously considers the core content and style of directives, namely intent and formality, for the Korean language. Utilizing manually generated natural language queries on six daily topics, we expand the corpus to formal and informal sentences by human rewriting and transferring. We verify the validity and industrial applicability of our approach by checking the adequate classification and inference performance that fit with conventional fine-tuning approaches, at the same time proposing a supervised formality transfer task.


Open Korean Corpora: A Practical Report
Won Ik Cho | Sangwhan Moon | Youngsook Song
Proceedings of Second Workshop for NLP Open Source Software (NLP-OSS)

Korean is often referred to as a low-resource language in the research community. While this claim is partially true, it is also because the availability of resources is inadequately advertised and curated. This work curates and reviews a list of Korean corpora, first describing institution-level resource development, then further iterate through a list of current open datasets for different types of tasks. We then propose a direction on how open-source dataset construction and releases should be done for less-resourced languages to promote research.

Jamo Pair Encoding: Subcharacter Representation-based Extreme Korean Vocabulary Compression for Efficient Subword Tokenization
Sangwhan Moon | Naoaki Okazaki
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

In the context of multilingual language model pre-training, vocabulary size for languages with a broad set of potential characters is an unsolved problem. We propose two algorithms applicable in any unsupervised multilingual pre-training task, increasing the elasticity of budget required for building the vocabulary in Byte-Pair Encoding inspired tokenizers, significantly reducing the cost of supporting Korean in a multilingual model.

PatchBERT: Just-in-Time, Out-of-Vocabulary Patching
Sangwhan Moon | Naoaki Okazaki
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Large scale pre-trained language models have shown groundbreaking performance improvements for transfer learning in the domain of natural language processing. In our paper, we study a pre-trained multilingual BERT model and analyze the OOV rate on downstream tasks, how it introduces information loss, and as a side-effect, obstructs the potential of the underlying model. We then propose multiple approaches for mitigation and demonstrate that it improves performance with the same parameter count when combined with fine-tuning.

Machines Getting with the Program: Understanding Intent Arguments of Non-Canonical Directives
Won Ik Cho | Youngki Moon | Sangwhan Moon | Seok Min Kim | Nam Soo Kim
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Modern dialog managers face the challenge of having to fulfill human-level conversational skills as part of common user expectations, including but not limited to discourse with no clear objective. Along with these requirements, agents are expected to extrapolate intent from the user’s dialogue even when subjected to non-canonical forms of speech. This depends on the agent’s comprehension of paraphrased forms of such utterances. Especially in low-resource languages, the lack of data is a bottleneck that prevents advancements of the comprehension performance for these types of agents. In this regard, here we demonstrate the necessity of extracting the intent argument of non-canonical directives in a natural language format, which may yield more accurate parsing, and suggest guidelines for building a parallel corpus for this purpose. Following the guidelines, we construct a Korean corpus of 50K instances of question/command-intent pairs, including the labels for classification of the utterance type. We also propose a method for mitigating class imbalance, demonstrating the potential applications of the corpus generation method and its multilingual extensibility.