Automatic Peer-review Aspect Score Prediction (PASP) of academic papers can be a helpful assistant tool for both reviewers and authors. Most existing works on PASP utilize supervised learning techniques. However, the limited number of peer-review data deteriorates the performance of PASP. This paper presents a novel semi-supervised learning (SSL) method that incorporates the Transformer fine-tuning into the Γ-model, a variant of the Ladder network, to leverage contextual features from unlabeled data. Backpropagation simultaneously minimizes the sum of supervised and unsupervised cost functions, avoiding the need for layer-wise pre-training. The experimental results show that our model outperforms the supervised and naive semi-supervised learning baselines. Our source codes are available online.
Local coherence relation between two phrases/sentences such as cause-effect and contrast gives a strong influence of whether a text is well-structured or not. This paper follows the assumption and presents a method for scoring text clarity by utilizing local coherence between adjacent sentences. We hypothesize that the contextual features of coherence relations learned by utilizing different data from the target training data are also possible to discriminate well-structured of the target text and thus help to score the text clarity. We propose a text clarity scoring method that utilizes local coherence analysis with an out-domain setting, i.e. the training data for the source and target tasks are different from each other. The method with language model pre-training BERT firstly trains the local coherence model as an auxiliary manner and then re-trains it together with clarity text scoring model. The experimental results by using the PeerRead benchmark dataset show the improvement compared with a single model, scoring text clarity model. Our source codes are available online.
Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is a process that aims to alleviate the workload of graders and improve the feedback cycle in educational systems. Multi-task learning models, one of the deep learning techniques that have recently been applied to many NLP tasks, demonstrate the vast potential for AES. In this work, we present an approach for combining two tasks, sentiment analysis, and AES by utilizing multi-task learning. The model is based on a hierarchical neural network that learns to predict a holistic score at the document-level along with sentiment classes at the word-level and sentence-level. The sentiment features extracted from opinion expressions can enhance a vanilla holistic essay scoring, which mainly focuses on lexicon and text semantics. Our approach demonstrates that sentiment features are beneficial for some essay prompts, and the performance is competitive to other deep learning models on the Automated StudentAssessment Prize (ASAP) benchmark. TheQuadratic Weighted Kappa (QWK) is used to measure the agreement between the human grader’s score and the model’s prediction. Ourmodel produces a QWK of 0.763.