Naoki Kobayashi


A Simple and Strong Baseline for End-to-End Neural RST-style Discourse Parsing
Naoki Kobayashi | Tsutomu Hirao | Hidetaka Kamigaito | Manabu Okumura | Masaaki Nagata
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

To promote and further develop RST-style discourse parsing models, we need a strong baseline that can be regarded as a reference for reporting reliable experimental results. This paper explores a strong baseline by integrating existing simple parsing strategies, top-down and bottom-up, with various transformer-based pre-trained language models.The experimental results obtained from two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the parsing performance strongly relies on the pre-trained language models rather than the parsing strategies.In particular, the bottom-up parser achieves large performance gains compared to the current best parser when employing DeBERTa.We further reveal that language models with a span-masking scheme especially boost the parsing performance through our analysis within intra- and multi-sentential parsing, and nuclearity prediction.


Improving Neural RST Parsing Model with Silver Agreement Subtrees
Naoki Kobayashi | Tsutomu Hirao | Hidetaka Kamigaito | Manabu Okumura | Masaaki Nagata
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Most of the previous Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) parsing methods are based on supervised learning such as neural networks, that require an annotated corpus of sufficient size and quality. However, the RST Discourse Treebank (RST-DT), the benchmark corpus for RST parsing in English, is small due to the costly annotation of RST trees. The lack of large annotated training data causes poor performance especially in relation labeling. Therefore, we propose a method for improving neural RST parsing models by exploiting silver data, i.e., automatically annotated data. We create large-scale silver data from an unlabeled corpus by using a state-of-the-art RST parser. To obtain high-quality silver data, we extract agreement subtrees from RST trees for documents built using the RST parsers. We then pre-train a neural RST parser with the obtained silver data and fine-tune it on the RST-DT. Experimental results show that our method achieved the best micro-F1 scores for Nuclearity and Relation at 75.0 and 63.2, respectively. Furthermore, we obtained a remarkable gain in the Relation score, 3.0 points, against the previous state-of-the-art parser.

Making Your Tweets More Fancy: Emoji Insertion to Texts
Jingun Kwon | Naoki Kobayashi | Hidetaka Kamigaito | Hiroya Takamura | Manabu Okumura
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2021)

In the social media, users frequently use small images called emojis in their posts. Although using emojis in texts plays a key role in recent communication systems, less attention has been paid on their positions in the given texts, despite that users carefully choose and put an emoji that matches their post. Exploring positions of emojis in texts will enhance understanding of the relationship between emojis and texts. We extend an emoji label prediction task taking into account the information of emoji positions, by jointly learning the emoji position in a tweet to predict the emoji label. The results demonstrate that the position of emojis in texts is a good clue to boost the performance of emoji label prediction. Human evaluation validates that there exists a suitable emoji position in a tweet, and our proposed task is able to make tweets more fancy and natural. In addition, considering emoji position can further improve the performance for the irony detection task compared to the emoji label prediction. We also report the experimental results for the modified dataset, due to the problem of the original dataset for the first shared task to predict an emoji label in SemEval2018.

Considering Nested Tree Structure in Sentence Extractive Summarization with Pre-trained Transformer
Jingun Kwon | Naoki Kobayashi | Hidetaka Kamigaito | Manabu Okumura
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Sentence extractive summarization shortens a document by selecting sentences for a summary while preserving its important contents. However, constructing a coherent and informative summary is difficult using a pre-trained BERT-based encoder since it is not explicitly trained for representing the information of sentences in a document. We propose a nested tree-based extractive summarization model on RoBERTa (NeRoBERTa), where nested tree structures consist of syntactic and discourse trees in a given document. Experimental results on the CNN/DailyMail dataset showed that NeRoBERTa outperforms baseline models in ROUGE. Human evaluation results also showed that NeRoBERTa achieves significantly better scores than the baselines in terms of coherence and yields comparable scores to the state-of-the-art models.


Split or Merge: Which is Better for Unsupervised RST Parsing?
Naoki Kobayashi | Tsutomu Hirao | Kengo Nakamura | Hidetaka Kamigaito | Manabu Okumura | Masaaki Nagata
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) parsing is crucial for many downstream NLP tasks that require a discourse structure for a text. Most of the previous RST parsers have been based on supervised learning approaches. That is, they require an annotated corpus of sufficient size and quality, and heavily rely on the language and domain dependent corpus. In this paper, we present two language-independent unsupervised RST parsing methods based on dynamic programming. The first one builds the optimal tree in terms of a dissimilarity score function that is defined for splitting a text span into smaller ones. The second builds the optimal tree in terms of a similarity score function that is defined for merging two adjacent spans into a large one. Experimental results on English and German RST treebanks showed that our parser based on span merging achieved the best score, around 0.8 F1 score, which is close to the scores of the previous supervised parsers.