In pace with developments in the research field of artificial intelligence, knowledge graphs (KGs) have attracted a surge of interest from both academia and industry. As a representation of semantic relations between entities, KGs have proven to be particularly relevant for natural language processing (NLP), experiencing a rapid spread and wide adoption within recent years. Given the increasing amount of research work in this area, several KG-related approaches have been surveyed in the NLP research community. However, a comprehensive study that categorizes established topics and reviews the maturity of individual research streams remains absent to this day. Contributing to closing this gap, we systematically analyzed 507 papers from the literature on KGs in NLP. Our survey encompasses a multifaceted review of tasks, research types, and contributions. As a result, we present a structured overview of the research landscape, provide a taxonomy of tasks, summarize our findings, and highlight directions for future work.
Hyper-relational knowledge graphs (KGs) (e.g., Wikidata) enable associating additional key-value pairs along with the main triple to disambiguate, or restrict the validity of a fact. In this work, we propose a message passing based graph encoder - StarE capable of modeling such hyper-relational KGs. Unlike existing approaches, StarE can encode an arbitrary number of additional information (qualifiers) along with the main triple while keeping the semantic roles of qualifiers and triples intact. We also demonstrate that existing benchmarks for evaluating link prediction (LP) performance on hyper-relational KGs suffer from fundamental flaws and thus develop a new Wikidata-based dataset - WD50K. Our experiments demonstrate that StarE based LP model outperforms existing approaches across multiple benchmarks. We also confirm that leveraging qualifiers is vital for link prediction with gains up to 25 MRR points compared to triple-based representations.