Related works used indexes like CKA and variants of CCA to measure the similarity of cross-lingual representations in multilingual language models. In this paper, we argue that assumptions of CKA/CCA align poorly with one of the motivating goals of cross-lingual learning analysis, i.e., explaining zero-shot cross-lingual transfer. We highlight what valuable aspects of cross-lingual similarity these indexes fail to capture and provide a motivating case study demonstrating the problem empirically. Then, we introduce Average Neuron-Wise Correlation (ANC) as a straightforward alternative that is exempt from the difficulties of CKA/CCA and is good specifically in a cross-lingual context. Finally, we use ANC to construct evidence that the previously introduced “first align, then predict” pattern takes place not only in masked language models (MLMs) but also in multilingual models with causal language modeling objectives (CLMs). Moreover, we show that the pattern extends to the scaled versions of the MLMs and CLMs (up to 85x original mBERT). Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/TartuNLP/xsim
Many works proposed methods to improve the performance of Neural Machine Translation (NMT) models in a domain/multi-domain adaptation scenario. However, an understanding of how NMT baselines represent text domain information internally is still lacking. Here we analyze the sentence representations learned by NMT Transformers and show that these explicitly include the information on text domains, even after only seeing the input sentences without domains labels. Furthermore, we show that this internal information is enough to cluster sentences by their underlying domains without supervision. We show that NMT models produce clusters better aligned to the actual domains compared to pre-trained language models (LMs). Notably, when computed on document-level, NMT cluster-to-domain correspondence nears 100%. We use these findings together with an approach to NMT domain adaptation using automatically extracted domains. Whereas previous work relied on external LMs for text clustering, we propose re-using the NMT model as a source of unsupervised clusters. We perform an extensive experimental study comparing two approaches across two data scenarios, three language pairs, and both sentence-level and document-level clustering, showing equal or significantly superior performance compared to LMs.
This paper describes the University of Tartu’s submission to the unsupervised machine translation track of WMT18 news translation shared task. We build several baseline translation systems for both directions of the English-Estonian language pair using monolingual data only; the systems belong to the phrase-based unsupervised machine translation paradigm where we experimented with phrase lengths of up to 3. As a main contribution, we performed a set of standalone experiments with compositional phrase embeddings as a substitute for phrases as individual vocabulary entries. Results show that reasonable n-gram vectors can be obtained by simply summing up individual word vectors which retains or improves the performance of phrase-based unsupervised machine tranlation systems while avoiding limitations of atomic phrase vectors.