Lei Wang


ASCM: An Answer Space Clustered Prompting Method without Answer Engineering
Zhen Wang | Yating Yang | Zhou Xi | Bo Ma | Lei Wang | Rui Dong | Azmat Anwar
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Prompt-based learning, which exploits knowledge from pre-trained language models by providing textual prompts and designing appropriate answer-category mapping methods, has achieved impressive successes on few-shot text classification and natural language inference (NLI). Because of the diverse linguistic expression, there exist many answer tokens for the same category. However, both manual answer design and automatic answer search constrain answer space and therefore hardly achieve ideal performance. To address this issue, we propose an answer space clustered prompting model (ASCM) together with a synonym initialization method (SI) which automatically categorizes all answer tokens in a semantic-clustered embedding space. We also propose a stable semi-supervised method named stair learning (SL) that orderly distills knowledge from better models to weaker models. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our ASCM+SL significantly outperforms existing state-of-the-art techniques in few-shot settings.

MWP-BERT: Numeracy-Augmented Pre-training for Math Word Problem Solving
Zhenwen Liang | Jipeng Zhang | Lei Wang | Wei Qin | Yunshi Lan | Jie Shao | Xiangliang Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Math word problem (MWP) solving faces a dilemma in number representation learning. In order to avoid the number representation issue and reduce the search space of feasible solutions, existing works striving for MWP solving usually replace real numbers with symbolic placeholders to focus on logic reasoning. However, different from common symbolic reasoning tasks like program synthesis and knowledge graph reasoning, MWP solving has extra requirements in numerical reasoning. In other words, instead of the number value itself, it is the reusable numerical property that matters more in numerical reasoning. Therefore, we argue that injecting numerical properties into symbolic placeholders with contextualized representation learning schema can provide a way out of the dilemma in the number representation issue here. In this work, we introduce this idea to the popular pre-training language model (PLM) techniques and build MWP-BERT, an effective contextual number representation PLM. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our MWP-BERT on MWP solving and several MWP-specific understanding tasks on both English and Chinese benchmarks.

RotateCT: Knowledge Graph Embedding by Rotation and Coordinate Transformation in Complex Space
Yao Dong | Lei Wang | Ji Xiang | Xiaobo Guo | Yuqiang Xie
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Knowledge graph embedding, which aims to learn representations of entities and relations in knowledge graphs, finds applications in various downstream tasks. The key to success of knowledge graph embedding models are the ability to model relation patterns including symmetry/antisymmetry, inversion, commutative composition and non-commutative composition. Although existing methods fail in modeling the non-commutative composition patterns, several approaches support this pattern by modeling beyond Euclidean space and complex space. Nevertheless, expanding to complicated spaces such as quaternion can easily lead to a substantial increase in the amount of parameters, which greatly reduces the computational efficiency. In this paper, we propose a new knowledge graph embedding method called RotateCT, which first transforms the coordinates of each entity, and then represents each relation as a rotation from head entity to tail entity in complex space. By design, RotateCT can infer the non-commutative composition patterns and improve the computational efficiency. Experiments on multiple datasets empirically show that RotateCT outperforms most state-of-the-art methods on link prediction and path query answering.

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Investigating Math Word Problems using Pretrained Multilingual Language Models
Minghuan Tan | Lei Wang | Lingxiao Jiang | Jing Jiang
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Mathematical Natural Language Processing (MathNLP)

In this paper, we revisit math word problems (MWPs) from the cross-lingual and multilingual perspective. We construct our MWP solvers over pretrained multilingual language models using the sequence-to-sequence model with copy mechanism. We compare how the MWP solvers perform in cross-lingual and multilingual scenarios. To facilitate the comparison of cross-lingual performance, we first adapt the large-scale English dataset MathQA as a counterpart of the Chinese dataset Math23K. Then we extend several English datasets to bilingual datasets through machine translation plus human annotation. Our experiments show that the MWP solvers may not be transferred to a different language even if the target expressions share the same numerical constants and operator set. However, it can be better generalized if problem types exist on both source language and target language.

COST-EFF: Collaborative Optimization of Spatial and Temporal Efficiency with Slenderized Multi-exit Language Models
Bowen Shen | Zheng Lin | Yuanxin Liu | Zhengxiao Liu | Lei Wang | Weiping Wang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Transformer-based pre-trained language models (PLMs) mostly suffer from excessive overhead despite their advanced capacity. For resource-constrained devices, there is an urgent need for a spatially and temporally efficient model which retains the major capacity of PLMs. However, existing statically compressed models are unaware of the diverse complexities between input instances, potentially resulting in redundancy and inadequacy for simple and complex inputs. Also, miniature models with early exiting encounter challenges in the trade-off between making predictions and serving the deeper layers. Motivated by such considerations, we propose a collaborative optimization for PLMs that integrates static model compression and dynamic inference acceleration. Specifically, the PLM is slenderized in width while the depth remains intact, complementing layer-wise early exiting to speed up inference dynamically. To address the trade-off of early exiting, we propose a joint training approach that calibrates slenderization and preserves contributive structures to each exit instead of only the final layer. Experiments are conducted on GLUE benchmark and the results verify the Pareto optimality of our approach at high compression and acceleration rate with 1/8 parameters and 1/19 FLOPs of BERT.

A Speaker-Aware Co-Attention Framework for Medical Dialogue Information Extraction
Yuan Xia | Zhenhui Shi | Jingbo Zhou | Jiayu Xu | Chao Lu | Yehui Yang | Lei Wang | Haifeng Huang | Xia Zhang | Junwei Liu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

With the development of medical digitization, the extraction and structuring of Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) have become challenging but fundamental tasks. How to accurately and automatically extract structured information from medical dialogues is especially difficult because the information needs to be inferred from complex interactions between the doctor and the patient. To this end, in this paper, we propose a speaker-aware co-attention framework for medical dialogue information extraction. To better utilize the pre-trained language representation model to perceive the semantics of the utterance and the candidate item, we develop a speaker-aware dialogue encoder with multi-task learning, which considers the speaker’s identity into account. To deal with complex interactions between different utterances and the correlations between utterances and candidate items, we propose a co-attention fusion network to aggregate the utterance information. We evaluate our framework on the public medical dialogue extraction datasets to demonstrate the superiority of our method, which can outperform the state-of-the-art methods by a large margin. Codes will be publicly available upon acceptance.


NOAHQA: Numerical Reasoning with Interpretable Graph Question Answering Dataset
Qiyuan Zhang | Lei Wang | Sicheng Yu | Shuohang Wang | Yang Wang | Jing Jiang | Ee-Peng Lim
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

While diverse question answering (QA) datasets have been proposed and contributed significantly to the development of deep learning models for QA tasks, the existing datasets fall short in two aspects. First, we lack QA datasets covering complex questions that involve answers as well as the reasoning processes to get them. As a result, the state-of-the-art QA research on numerical reasoning still focuses on simple calculations and does not provide the mathematical expressions or evidence justifying the answers. Second, the QA community has contributed a lot of effort to improve the interpretability of QA models. However, they fail to explicitly show the reasoning process, such as the evidence order for reasoning and the interactions between different pieces of evidence. To address the above shortcoming, we introduce NOAHQA, a conversational and bilingual QA dataset with questions requiring numerical reasoning with compound mathematical expressions. With NOAHQA, we develop an interpretable reasoning graph as well as the appropriate evaluation metric to measure the answer quality. We evaluate the state-of-the-art QA models trained using existing QA datasets on NOAHQA and show that the best among them can only achieve 55.5 exact match scores, while the human performance is 89.7. We also present a new QA model for generating a reasoning graph where the reasoning graph metric still has a large gap compared with that of humans, eg, 28 scores.


Graph-to-Tree Learning for Solving Math Word Problems
Jipeng Zhang | Lei Wang | Roy Ka-Wei Lee | Yi Bin | Yan Wang | Jie Shao | Ee-Peng Lim
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

While the recent tree-based neural models have demonstrated promising results in generating solution expression for the math word problem (MWP), most of these models do not capture the relationships and order information among the quantities well. This results in poor quantity representations and incorrect solution expressions. In this paper, we propose Graph2Tree, a novel deep learning architecture that combines the merits of the graph-based encoder and tree-based decoder to generate better solution expressions. Included in our Graph2Tree framework are two graphs, namely the Quantity Cell Graph and Quantity Comparison Graph, which are designed to address limitations of existing methods by effectively representing the relationships and order information among the quantities in MWPs. We conduct extensive experiments on two available datasets. Our experiment results show that Graph2Tree outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines on two benchmark datasets significantly. We also discuss case studies and empirically examine Graph2Tree’s effectiveness in translating the MWP text into solution expressions.

基于预训练语言模型的案件要素识别方法(A Method for Case Factor Recognition Based on Pre-trained Language Models)
Haishun Liu (刘海顺) | Lei Wang (王雷) | Yanguang Chen (陈彦光) | Shuchen Zhang (张书晨) | Yuanyuan Sun (孙媛媛) | Hongfei Lin (林鸿飞)
Proceedings of the 19th Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics



Modeling Intra-Relation in Math Word Problems with Different Functional Multi-Head Attentions
Jierui Li | Lei Wang | Jipeng Zhang | Yan Wang | Bing Tian Dai | Dongxiang Zhang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Several deep learning models have been proposed for solving math word problems (MWPs) automatically. Although these models have the ability to capture features without manual efforts, their approaches to capturing features are not specifically designed for MWPs. To utilize the merits of deep learning models with simultaneous consideration of MWPs’ specific features, we propose a group attention mechanism to extract global features, quantity-related features, quantity-pair features and question-related features in MWPs respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed approach performs significantly better than previous state-of-the-art methods, and boost performance from 66.9% to 69.5% on Math23K with training-test split, from 65.8% to 66.9% on Math23K with 5-fold cross-validation and from 69.2% to 76.1% on MAWPS.


A Neural Network Based Model for Loanword Identification in Uyghur
Chenggang Mi | Yating Yang | Lei Wang | Xi Zhou | Tonghai Jiang
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

Translating a Math Word Problem to a Expression Tree
Lei Wang | Yan Wang | Deng Cai | Dongxiang Zhang | Xiaojiang Liu
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Sequence-to-sequence (SEQ2SEQ) models have been successfully applied to automatic math word problem solving. Despite its simplicity, a drawback still remains: a math word problem can be correctly solved by more than one equations. This non-deterministic transduction harms the performance of maximum likelihood estimation. In this paper, by considering the uniqueness of expression tree, we propose an equation normalization method to normalize the duplicated equations. Moreover, we analyze the performance of three popular SEQ2SEQ models on the math word problem solving. We find that each model has its own specialty in solving problems, consequently an ensemble model is then proposed to combine their advantages. Experiments on dataset Math23K show that the ensemble model with equation normalization significantly outperforms the previous state-of-the-art methods.

Toward Better Loanword Identification in Uyghur Using Cross-lingual Word Embeddings
Chenggang Mi | Yating Yang | Lei Wang | Xi Zhou | Tonghai Jiang
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

To enrich vocabulary of low resource settings, we proposed a novel method which identify loanwords in monolingual corpora. More specifically, we first use cross-lingual word embeddings as the core feature to generate semantically related candidates based on comparable corpora and a small bilingual lexicon; then, a log-linear model which combines several shallow features such as pronunciation similarity and hybrid language model features to predict the final results. In this paper, we use Uyghur as the receipt language and try to detect loanwords in four donor languages: Arabic, Chinese, Persian and Russian. We conduct two groups of experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed approach: loanword identification and OOV translation in four language pairs and eight translation directions (Uyghur-Arabic, Arabic-Uyghur, Uyghur-Chinese, Chinese-Uyghur, Uyghur-Persian, Persian-Uyghur, Uyghur-Russian, and Russian-Uyghur). Experimental results on loanword identification show that our method outperforms other baseline models significantly. Neural machine translation models integrating results of loanword identification experiments achieve the best results on OOV translation(with 0.5-0.9 BLEU improvements)


Log-linear Models for Uyghur Segmentation in Spoken Language Translation
Chenggang Mi | Yating Yang | Rui Dong | Xi Zhou | Lei Wang | Xiao Li | Tonghai Jiang
Proceedings of the International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing, RANLP 2017

To alleviate data sparsity in spoken Uyghur machine translation, we proposed a log-linear based morphological segmentation approach. Instead of learning model only from monolingual annotated corpus, this approach optimizes Uyghur segmentation for spoken translation based on both bilingual and monolingual corpus. Our approach relies on several features such as traditional conditional random field (CRF) feature, bilingual word alignment feature and monolingual suffixword co-occurrence feature. Experimental results shown that our proposed segmentation model for Uyghur spoken translation achieved 1.6 BLEU score improvements compared with the state-of-the-art baseline.


Recurrent Neural Network Based Loanwords Identification in Uyghur
Chenggang Mi | Yating Yang | Xi Zhou | Lei Wang | Xiao Li | Tonghai Jiang
Proceedings of the 30th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation: Oral Papers


Construction of Chinese Idiom Knowledge-base and Its Applications
Lei Wang | Shiwen Yu
Proceedings of the 2010 Workshop on Multiword Expressions: from Theory to Applications

Semantic Computing and Language Knowledge Bases
Lei Wang | Shiwen Yu
CIPS-SIGHAN Joint Conference on Chinese Language Processing