Kyosuke Nishida


Self-Adaptive Named Entity Recognition by Retrieving Unstructured Knowledge
Kosuke Nishida | Naoki Yoshinaga | Kyosuke Nishida
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Although named entity recognition (NER) helps us to extract domain-specific entities from text (e.g., artists in the music domain), it is costly to create a large amount of training data or a structured knowledge base to perform accurate NER in the target domain. Here, we propose self-adaptive NER, which retrieves external knowledge from unstructured text to learn the usages of entities that have not been learned well. To retrieve useful knowledge for NER, we design an effective two-stage model that retrieves unstructured knowledge using uncertain entities as queries. Our model predicts the entities in the input and then finds those of which the prediction is not confident. Then, it retrieves knowledge by using these uncertain entities as queries and concatenates the retrieved text to the original input to revise the prediction. Experiments on CrossNER datasets demonstrated that our model outperforms strong baselines by 2.35 points in F1 metric.


Scene-Text Aware Image and Text Retrieval with Dual-Encoder
Shumpei Miyawaki | Taku Hasegawa | Kyosuke Nishida | Takuma Kato | Jun Suzuki
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

We tackle the tasks of image and text retrieval using a dual-encoder model in which images and text are encoded independently. This model has attracted attention as an approach that enables efficient offline inferences by connecting both vision and language in the same semantic space; however, whether an image encoder as part of a dual-encoder model can interpret scene-text (i.e., the textual information in images) is unclear.We propose pre-training methods that encourage a joint understanding of the scene-text and surrounding visual information.The experimental results demonstrate that our methods improve the retrieval performances of the dual-encoder models.

Improving Few-Shot Image Classification Using Machine- and User-Generated Natural Language Descriptions
Kosuke Nishida | Kyosuke Nishida | Shuichi Nishioka
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Humans can obtain the knowledge of novel visual concepts from language descriptions, and we thus use the few-shot image classification task to investigate whether a machine learning model can have this capability. Our proposed model, LIDE (Learning from Image and DEscription), has a text decoder to generate the descriptions and a text encoder to obtain the text representations of machine- or user-generated descriptions. We confirmed that LIDE with machine-generated descriptions outperformed baseline models. Moreover, the performance was improved further with high-quality user-generated descriptions. The generated descriptions can be viewed as the explanations of the model’s predictions, and we observed that such explanations were consistent with prediction results. We also investigated why the language description improves the few-shot image classification performance by comparing the image representations and the text representations in the feature spaces.


Task-adaptive Pre-training of Language Models with Word Embedding Regularization
Kosuke Nishida | Kyosuke Nishida | Sen Yoshida
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


Seeing the World through Text: Evaluating Image Descriptions for Commonsense Reasoning in Machine Reading Comprehension
Diana Galvan-Sosa | Jun Suzuki | Kyosuke Nishida | Koji Matsuda | Kentaro Inui
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Beyond Vision and LANguage: inTEgrating Real-world kNowledge (LANTERN)

Despite recent achievements in natural language understanding, reasoning over commonsense knowledge still represents a big challenge to AI systems. As the name suggests, common sense is related to perception and as such, humans derive it from experience rather than from literary education. Recent works in the NLP and the computer vision field have made the effort of making such knowledge explicit using written language and visual inputs, respectively. Our premise is that the latter source fits better with the characteristics of commonsense acquisition. In this work, we explore to what extent the descriptions of real-world scenes are sufficient to learn common sense about different daily situations, drawing upon visual information to answer script knowledge questions.

Unsupervised Domain Adaptation of Language Models for Reading Comprehension
Kosuke Nishida | Kyosuke Nishida | Itsumi Saito | Hisako Asano | Junji Tomita
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This study tackles unsupervised domain adaptation of reading comprehension (UDARC). Reading comprehension (RC) is a task to learn the capability for question answering with textual sources. State-of-the-art models on RC still do not have general linguistic intelligence; i.e., their accuracy worsens for out-domain datasets that are not used in the training. We hypothesize that this discrepancy is caused by a lack of the language modeling (LM) capability for the out-domain. The UDARC task allows models to use supervised RC training data in the source domain and only unlabeled passages in the target domain. To solve the UDARC problem, we provide two domain adaptation models. The first one learns the out-domain LM and in-domain RC task sequentially. The second one is the proposed model that uses a multi-task learning approach of LM and RC. The models can retain both the RC capability acquired from the supervised data in the source domain and the LM capability from the unlabeled data in the target domain. We evaluated the models on UDARC with five datasets in different domains. The models outperformed the model without domain adaptation. In particular, the proposed model yielded an improvement of 4.3/4.2 points in EM/F1 in an unseen biomedical domain.


Multi-style Generative Reading Comprehension
Kyosuke Nishida | Itsumi Saito | Kosuke Nishida | Kazutoshi Shinoda | Atsushi Otsuka | Hisako Asano | Junji Tomita
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

This study tackles generative reading comprehension (RC), which consists of answering questions based on textual evidence and natural language generation (NLG). We propose a multi-style abstractive summarization model for question answering, called Masque. The proposed model has two key characteristics. First, unlike most studies on RC that have focused on extracting an answer span from the provided passages, our model instead focuses on generating a summary from the question and multiple passages. This serves to cover various answer styles required for real-world applications. Second, whereas previous studies built a specific model for each answer style because of the difficulty of acquiring one general model, our approach learns multi-style answers within a model to improve the NLG capability for all styles involved. This also enables our model to give an answer in the target style. Experiments show that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on the Q&A task and the Q&A + NLG task of MS MARCO 2.1 and the summary task of NarrativeQA. We observe that the transfer of the style-independent NLG capability to the target style is the key to its success.

Answering while Summarizing: Multi-task Learning for Multi-hop QA with Evidence Extraction
Kosuke Nishida | Kyosuke Nishida | Masaaki Nagata | Atsushi Otsuka | Itsumi Saito | Hisako Asano | Junji Tomita
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Question answering (QA) using textual sources for purposes such as reading comprehension (RC) has attracted much attention. This study focuses on the task of explainable multi-hop QA, which requires the system to return the answer with evidence sentences by reasoning and gathering disjoint pieces of the reference texts. It proposes the Query Focused Extractor (QFE) model for evidence extraction and uses multi-task learning with the QA model. QFE is inspired by extractive summarization models; compared with the existing method, which extracts each evidence sentence independently, it sequentially extracts evidence sentences by using an RNN with an attention mechanism on the question sentence. It enables QFE to consider the dependency among the evidence sentences and cover important information in the question sentence. Experimental results show that QFE with a simple RC baseline model achieves a state-of-the-art evidence extraction score on HotpotQA. Although designed for RC, it also achieves a state-of-the-art evidence extraction score on FEVER, which is a recognizing textual entailment task on a large textual database.

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A Simple but Effective Method to Incorporate Multi-turn Context with BERT for Conversational Machine Comprehension
Yasuhito Ohsugi | Itsumi Saito | Kyosuke Nishida | Hisako Asano | Junji Tomita
Proceedings of the First Workshop on NLP for Conversational AI

Conversational machine comprehension (CMC) requires understanding the context of multi-turn dialogue. Using BERT, a pretraining language model, has been successful for single-turn machine comprehension, while modeling multiple turns of question answering with BERT has not been established because BERT has a limit on the number and the length of input sequences. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective method with BERT for CMC. Our method uses BERT to encode a paragraph independently conditioned with each question and each answer in a multi-turn context. Then, the method predicts an answer on the basis of the paragraph representations encoded with BERT. The experiments with representative CMC datasets, QuAC and CoQA, show that our method outperformed recently published methods (+0.8 F1 on QuAC and +2.1 F1 on CoQA). In addition, we conducted a detailed analysis of the effects of the number and types of dialogue history on the accuracy of CMC, and we found that the gold answer history, which may not be given in an actual conversation, contributed to the model performance most on both datasets.


Natural Language Inference with Definition Embedding Considering Context On the Fly
Kosuke Nishida | Kyosuke Nishida | Hisako Asano | Junji Tomita
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP

Natural language inference (NLI) is one of the most important tasks in NLP. In this study, we propose a novel method using word dictionaries, which are pairs of a word and its definition, as external knowledge. Our neural definition embedding mechanism encodes input sentences with the definitions of each word of the sentences on the fly. It can encode the definition of words considering the context of input sentences by using an attention mechanism. We evaluated our method using WordNet as a dictionary and confirmed that our method performed better than baseline models when using the full or a subset of 100d GloVe as word embeddings.

Commonsense Knowledge Base Completion and Generation
Itsumi Saito | Kyosuke Nishida | Hisako Asano | Junji Tomita
Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

This study focuses on acquisition of commonsense knowledge. A previous study proposed a commonsense knowledge base completion (CKB completion) method that predicts a confidence score of for triplet-style knowledge for improving the coverage of CKBs. To improve the accuracy of CKB completion and expand the size of CKBs, we formulate a new commonsense knowledge base generation task (CKB generation) and propose a joint learning method that incorporates both CKB completion and CKB generation. Experimental results show that the joint learning method improved completion accuracy and the generation model created reasonable knowledge. Our generation model could also be used to augment data and improve the accuracy of completion.


Automatically Extracting Variant-Normalization Pairs for Japanese Text Normalization
Itsumi Saito | Kyosuke Nishida | Kugatsu Sadamitsu | Kuniko Saito | Junji Tomita
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Social media texts, such as tweets from Twitter, contain many types of non-standard tokens, and the number of normalization approaches for handling such noisy text has been increasing. We present a method for automatically extracting pairs of a variant word and its normal form from unsegmented text on the basis of a pair-wise similarity approach. We incorporated the acquired variant-normalization pairs into Japanese morphological analysis. The experimental results show that our method can extract widely covered variants from large Twitter data and improve the recall of normalization without degrading the overall accuracy of Japanese morphological analysis.

Hyperspherical Query Likelihood Models with Word Embeddings
Ryo Masumura | Taichi Asami | Hirokazu Masataki | Kugatsu Sadamitsu | Kyosuke Nishida | Ryuichiro Higashinaka
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

This paper presents an initial study on hyperspherical query likelihood models (QLMs) for information retrieval (IR). Our motivation is to naturally utilize pre-trained word embeddings for probabilistic IR. To this end, key idea is to directly leverage the word embeddings as random variables for directional probabilistic models based on von Mises-Fisher distributions which are familiar to cosine distances. The proposed method enables us to theoretically take semantic similarities between document and target queries into consideration without introducing heuristic expansion techniques. In addition, this paper reveals relationships between hyperspherical QLMs and conventional QLMs. Experiments show document retrieval evaluation results in which a hyperspherical QLM is compared to conventional QLMs and document distance metrics using word or document embeddings.

Improving Neural Text Normalization with Data Augmentation at Character- and Morphological Levels
Itsumi Saito | Jun Suzuki | Kyosuke Nishida | Kugatsu Sadamitsu | Satoshi Kobashikawa | Ryo Masumura | Yuji Matsumoto | Junji Tomita
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of augmented data for encoder-decoder-based neural normalization models. Attention based encoder-decoder models are greatly effective in generating many natural languages. % such as machine translation or machine summarization. In general, we have to prepare for a large amount of training data to train an encoder-decoder model. Unlike machine translation, there are few training data for text-normalization tasks. In this paper, we propose two methods for generating augmented data. The experimental results with Japanese dialect normalization indicate that our methods are effective for an encoder-decoder model and achieve higher BLEU score than that of baselines. We also investigated the oracle performance and revealed that there is sufficient room for improving an encoder-decoder model.


A Hierarchical Neural Network for Information Extraction of Product Attribute and Condition Sentences
Yukinori Homma | Kugatsu Sadamitsu | Kyosuke Nishida | Ryuichiro Higashinaka | Hisako Asano | Yoshihiro Matsuo
Proceedings of the Open Knowledge Base and Question Answering Workshop (OKBQA 2016)

This paper describes a hierarchical neural network we propose for sentence classification to extract product information from product documents. The network classifies each sentence in a document into attribute and condition classes on the basis of word sequences and sentence sequences in the document. Experimental results showed the method using the proposed network significantly outperformed baseline methods by taking semantic representation of word and sentence sequential data into account. We also evaluated the network with two different product domains (insurance and tourism domains) and found that it was effective for both the domains.