Kristín Bjarnadóttir


A Universal Dependencies Conversion Pipeline for a Penn-format Constituency Treebank
Þórunn Arnardóttir | Hinrik Hafsteinsson | Einar Freyr Sigurðsson | Kristín Bjarnadóttir | Anton Karl Ingason | Hildur Jónsdóttir | Steinþór Steingrímsson
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Universal Dependencies (UDW 2020)

The topic of this paper is a rule-based pipeline for converting constituency treebanks based on the Penn Treebank format to Universal Dependencies (UD). We describe an Icelandic constituency treebank, its annotation scheme and the UD scheme. The conversion is discussed, the methods used to deliver a fully automated UD corpus and complications involved. To show its applicability to corpora in different languages, we extend the pipeline and convert a Faroese constituency treebank to a UD corpus. The result is an open-source conversion tool, published under an Apache 2.0 license, applicable to a Penn-style treebank for conversion to a UD corpus, along with the two new UD corpora.

Kvistur 2.0: a BiLSTM Compound Splitter for Icelandic
Jón Daðason | David Mollberg | Hrafn Loftsson | Kristín Bjarnadóttir
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

In this paper, we present a character-based BiLSTM model for splitting Icelandic compound words, and show how varying amounts of training data affects the performance of the model. Compounding is highly productive in Icelandic, and new compounds are constantly being created. This results in a large number of out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words, negatively impacting the performance of many NLP tools. Our model is trained on a dataset of 2.9 million unique word forms and their constituent structures from the Database of Icelandic Morphology. The model learns how to split compound words into two parts and can be used to derive the constituent structure of any word form. Knowing the constituent structure of a word form makes it possible to generate the optimal split for a given task, e.g., a full split for subword tokenization, or, in the case of part-of-speech tagging, splitting an OOV word until the largest known morphological head is found. The model outperforms other previously published methods when evaluated on a corpus of manually split word forms. This method has been integrated into Kvistur, an Icelandic compound word analyzer.


DIM: The Database of Icelandic Morphology
Kristín Bjarnadóttir | Kristín Ingibjörg Hlynsdóttir | Steinþór Steingrímsson
Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics

The topic of this paper is The Database of Icelandic Morphology (DIM), a multipurpose linguistic resource, created for use in language technology, as a reference for the general public in Iceland, and for use in research on the Icelandic language. DIM contains inflectional paradigms and analysis of word formation, with a vocabulary of approx. 285,000 lemmas. DIM is based on The Database of Modern Icelandic Inflection, which has been in use since 2004.

Nefnir: A high accuracy lemmatizer for Icelandic
Svanhvít Lilja Ingólfsdóttir | Hrafn Loftsson | Jón Friðrik Daðason | Kristín Bjarnadóttir
Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics

Lemmatization, finding the basic morphological form of a word in a corpus, is an important step in many natural language processing tasks when working with morphologically rich languages. We describe and evaluate Nefnir, a new open source lemmatizer for Icelandic. Nefnir uses suffix substitution rules, derived from a large morphological database, to lemmatize tagged text. Evaluation shows that for correctly tagged text, Nefnir obtains an accuracy of 99.55%, and for text tagged with a PoS tagger, the accuracy obtained is 96.88%.


Utilizing constituent structure for compound analysis
Kristín Bjarnadóttir | Jón Daðason
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

Compounding is extremely productive in Icelandic and multi-word compounds are common. The likelihood of finding previously unseen compounds in texts is thus very high, which makes out-of-vocabulary words a problem in the use of NLP tools. The tool de-scribed in this paper splits Icelandic compounds and shows their binary constituent structure. The probability of a constituent in an unknown (or unanalysed) compound forming a combined constituent with either of its neighbours is estimated, with the use of data on the constituent structure of over 240 thousand compounds from the Database of Modern Icelandic Inflection, and word frequencies from Íslenskur orðasjóður, a corpus of approx. 550 million words. Thus, the structure of an unknown compound is derived by com-parison with compounds with partially the same constituents and similar structure in the training data. The granularity of the split re-turned by the decompounder is important in tasks such as semantic analysis or machine translation, where a flat (non-structured) se-quence of constituents is insufficient.