Jouni Luoma


Fine-grained Named Entity Annotation for Finnish
Jouni Luoma | Li-Hsin Chang | Filip Ginter | Sampo Pyysalo
Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa)

We introduce a corpus with fine-grained named entity annotation for Finnish, following the OntoNotes guidelines to create a resource that is cross-lingually compatible with existing annotations for other languages. We combine and extend two NER corpora recently introduced for Finnish and revise their custom annotation scheme through a combination of automatic and manual processing steps. The resulting corpus consists of nearly 500,000 tokens annotated for over 50,000 mentions categorized into the 18 OntoNotes name and numeric entity types. We evaluate this resource and demonstrate its compatibility with the English OntoNotes annotations by training state-of-the-art mono-, bi- and multilingual deep learning models, finding both that the corpus allows highly accurate recognition of OntoNotes types at 93% F-score and that a comparable level of tagging accuracy can be achieved by a bilingual Finnish-English NER model.


Exploring Cross-sentence Contexts for Named Entity Recognition with BERT
Jouni Luoma | Sampo Pyysalo
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Named entity recognition (NER) is frequently addressed as a sequence classification task with each input consisting of one sentence of text. It is nevertheless clear that useful information for NER is often found also elsewhere in text. Recent self-attention models like BERT can both capture long-distance relationships in input and represent inputs consisting of several sentences. This creates opportunities for adding cross-sentence information in natural language processing tasks. This paper presents a systematic study exploring the use of cross-sentence information for NER using BERT models in five languages. We find that adding context as additional sentences to BERT input systematically increases NER performance. Multiple sentences in input samples allows us to study the predictions of the sentences in different contexts. We propose a straightforward method, Contextual Majority Voting (CMV), to combine these different predictions and demonstrate this to further increase NER performance. Evaluation on established datasets, including the CoNLL’02 and CoNLL’03 NER benchmarks, demonstrates that our proposed approach can improve on the state-of-the-art NER results on English, Dutch, and Finnish, achieves the best reported BERT-based results on German, and is on par with other BERT-based approaches in Spanish. We release all methods implemented in this work under open licenses.

A Broad-coverage Corpus for Finnish Named Entity Recognition
Jouni Luoma | Miika Oinonen | Maria Pyykönen | Veronika Laippala | Sampo Pyysalo
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We present a new manually annotated corpus for broad-coverage named entity recognition for Finnish. Building on the original Universal Dependencies Finnish corpus of 754 documents (200,000 tokens) representing ten different genres of text, we introduce annotation marking person, organization, location, product and event names as well as dates. The new annotation identifies in total over 10,000 mentions. An evaluation of inter-annotator agreement indicates that the quality and consistency of annotation are high, at 94.5% F-score for exact match. A comprehensive evaluation using state-of-the-art machine learning methods demonstrates that the new resource maintains compatibility with a previously released single-domain corpus for Finnish NER and makes it possible to recognize named entity mentions in texts drawn from most domains at precision and recall approaching or exceeding 90%. Remaining challenges such as the identification of names in blog posts and transcribed speech are also identified. The newly introduced Turku NER corpus and related resources introduced in this work are released under open licenses via .