Previous studies have introduced a weakly-supervised paradigm for solving math word problems requiring only the answer value annotation. While these methods search for correct value equation candidates as pseudo labels, they search among a narrow sub-space of the enormous equation space. To address this problem, we propose a novel search algorithm with combinatorial strategy ComSearch, which can compress the search space by excluding mathematically equivalent equations. The compression allows the searching algorithm to enumerate all possible equations and obtain high-quality data. We investigate the noise in the pseudo labels that hold wrong mathematical logic, which we refer to as the false-matching problem, and propose a ranking model to denoise the pseudo labels. Our approach holds a flexible framework to utilize two existing supervised math word problem solvers to train pseudo labels, and both achieve state-of-the-art performance in the weak supervision task.
This paper presents a parameter-lite transfer learning approach of pretrained language models (LM) for knowledge graph (KG) completion. Instead of finetuning, which modifies all LM parameters, we only tune a few new parameters while keeping the original LM parameters fixed. We establish this via reformulating KG completion as a “fill-in-the-blank” task, and introducing a parameter-lite encoder on top of the original LMs. We show that, by tuning far fewer parameters than finetuning, LMs transfer non-trivially to most tasks and reach competitiveness with prior state-of-the-art approaches. For instance, we outperform the fully finetuning approaches on a KG completion benchmark by tuning only 1% of the parameters.
The task of completing knowledge triplets has broad downstream applications. Both structural and semantic information plays an important role in knowledge graph completion. Unlike previous approaches that rely on either the structures or semantics of the knowledge graphs, we propose to jointly embed the semantics in the natural language description of the knowledge triplets with their structure information. Our method embeds knowledge graphs for the completion task via fine-tuning pre-trained language models with respect to a probabilistic structured loss, where the forward pass of the language models captures semantics and the loss reconstructs structures. Our extensive experiments on a variety of knowledge graph benchmarks have demonstrated the state-of-the-art performance of our method. We also show that our method can significantly improve the performance in a low-resource regime, thanks to the better use of semantics. The code and datasets are available at https://github.com/pkusjh/LASS.
Math word problem (MWP) is a challenging and critical task in natural language processing. Many recent studies formalize MWP as a generation task and have adopted sequence-to-sequence models to transform problem descriptions to mathematical expressions. However, mathematical expressions are prone to minor mistakes while the generation objective does not explicitly handle such mistakes. To address this limitation, we devise a new ranking task for MWP and propose Generate & Rank, a multi-task framework based on a generative pre-trained language model. By joint training with generation and ranking, the model learns from its own mistakes and is able to distinguish between correct and incorrect expressions. Meanwhile, we perform tree-based disturbance specially designed for MWP and an online update to boost the ranker. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method on the benchmark and the results show that our method consistently outperforms baselines in all datasets. Particularly, in the classical Math23k, our method is 7% (78.4% to 85.4%) higher than the state-of-the-art. Code could be found at https://github.com/huawei-noah/noah-research.