Jad Doughman


Gender Bias in Text: Origin, Taxonomy, and Implications
Jad Doughman | Wael Khreich | Maya El Gharib | Maha Wiss | Zahraa Berjawi
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Gender Bias in Natural Language Processing

Gender inequality represents a considerable loss of human potential and perpetuates a culture of violence, higher gender wage gaps, and a lack of representation of women in higher and leadership positions. Applications powered by Artificial Intelligence (AI) are increasingly being used in the real world to provide critical decisions about who is going to be hired, granted a loan, admitted to college, etc. However, the main pillars of AI, Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Learning (ML) have been shown to reflect and even amplify gender biases and stereotypes, which are mainly inherited from historical training data. In an effort to facilitate the identification and mitigation of gender bias in English text, we develop a comprehensive taxonomy that relies on the following gender bias types: Generic Pronouns, Sexism, Occupational Bias, Exclusionary Bias, and Semantics. We also provide a bottom-up overview of gender bias, from its societal origin to its spillover onto language. Finally, we link the societal implications of gender bias to their corresponding type(s) in the proposed taxonomy. The underlying motivation of our work is to help enable the technical community to identify and mitigate relevant biases from training corpora for improved fairness in NLP systems.

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DiaLex: A Benchmark for Evaluating Multidialectal Arabic Word Embeddings
Muhammad Abdul-Mageed | Shady Elbassuoni | Jad Doughman | AbdelRahim Elmadany | El Moatez Billah Nagoudi | Yorgo Zoughby | Ahmad Shaher | Iskander Gaba | Ahmed Helal | Mohammed El-Razzaz
Proceedings of the Sixth Arabic Natural Language Processing Workshop

Word embeddings are a core component of modern natural language processing systems, making the ability to thoroughly evaluate them a vital task. We describe DiaLex, a benchmark for intrinsic evaluation of dialectal Arabic word embeddings. DiaLex covers five important Arabic dialects: Algerian, Egyptian, Lebanese, Syrian, and Tunisian. Across these dialects, DiaLex provides a testbank for six syntactic and semantic relations, namely male to female, singular to dual, singular to plural, antonym, comparative, and genitive to past tense. DiaLex thus consists of a collection of word pairs representing each of the six relations in each of the five dialects. To demonstrate the utility of DiaLex, we use it to evaluate a set of existing and new Arabic word embeddings that we developed. Beyond evaluation of word embeddings, DiaLex supports efforts to integrate dialects into the Arabic language curriculum. It can be easily translated into Modern Standard Arabic and English, which can be useful for evaluating word translation. Our benchmark, evaluation code, and new word embedding models will be publicly available.


Time-Aware Word Embeddings for Three Lebanese News Archives
Jad Doughman | Fatima Abu Salem | Shady Elbassuoni
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Word embeddings have proven to be an effective method for capturing semantic relations among distinct terms within a large corpus. In this paper, we present a set of word embeddings learnt from three large Lebanese news archives, which collectively consist of 609,386 scanned newspaper images and spanning a total of 151 years, ranging from 1933 till 2011. The diversified ideological nature of the news archives alongside the temporal variability of the embeddings offer a rare glimpse onto the variation of word representation across the left-right political spectrum. To train the word embeddings, Google’s Tesseract 4.0 OCR engine was employed to transcribe the scanned news archives, and various archive-level as well as decade-level word embeddings were learnt. To evaluate the accuracy of the learnt word embeddings, a benchmark of analogy tasks was used. Finally, we demonstrate an interactive system that allows the end user to visualize for a given word of interest, the variation of the top-k closest words in the embedding space as a function of time and across news archives using an animated scatter plot.