Diverse NMT aims at generating multiple diverse yet faithful translations given a source sentence. In this paper, we investigate a common shortcoming in existing diverse NMT studies: the model is usually trained with single reference, while expected to generate multiple candidate translations in inference. The discrepancy between training and inference enlarges the confidence variance and quality gap among candidate translations and thus hinders model performance. To deal with this defect, we propose a multi-candidate optimization framework for diverse NMT. Specifically, we define assessments to score the diversity and the quality of candidate translations during training, and optimize the diverse NMT model with two strategies based on reinforcement learning, namely hard constrained training and soft constrained training. We conduct experiments on NIST Chinese-English and WMT14 English-German translation tasks. The results illustrate that our framework is transparent to basic diverse NMT models, and universally makes better trade-off between diversity and quality. Our source codeis available at https://github.com/DeepLearnXMU/MultiCanOptim.
Keyphrase generation aims to automatically generate short phrases summarizing an input document. The recently emerged ONE2SET paradigm (Ye et al., 2021) generates keyphrases as a set and has achieved competitive performance. Nevertheless, we observe serious calibration errors outputted by ONE2SET, especially in the over-estimation of ∅ token (means “no corresponding keyphrase”). In this paper, we deeply analyze this limitation and identify two main reasons behind: 1) the parallel generation has to introduce excessive ∅ as padding tokens into training instances; and 2) the training mechanism assigning target to each slot is unstable and further aggravates the ∅ token over-estimation. To make the model well-calibrated, we propose WR-ONE2SET which extends ONE2SET with an adaptive instance-level cost Weighting strategy and a target Re-assignment mechanism. The former dynamically penalizes the over-estimated slots for different instances thus smoothing the uneven training distribution. The latter refines the original inappropriate assignment and reduces the supervisory signals of over-estimated slots. Experimental results on commonly-used datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of our proposed paradigm.
A good translation should not only translate the original content semantically, but also incarnate personal traits of the original text. For a real-world neural machine translation (NMT) system, these user traits (e.g., topic preference, stylistic characteristics and expression habits) can be preserved in user behavior (e.g., historical inputs). However, current NMT systems marginally consider the user behavior due to: 1) the difficulty of modeling user portraits in zero-shot scenarios, and 2) the lack of user-behavior annotated parallel dataset. To fill this gap, we introduce a novel framework called user-driven NMT. Specifically, a cache-based module and a user-driven contrastive learning method are proposed to offer NMT the ability to capture potential user traits from their historical inputs under a zero-shot learning fashion. Furthermore, we contribute the first Chinese-English parallel corpus annotated with user behavior called UDT-Corpus. Experimental results confirm that the proposed user-driven NMT can generate user-specific translations.