Haoyue Shi


Bilingual Lexicon Induction via Unsupervised Bitext Construction and Word Alignment
Haoyue Shi | Luke Zettlemoyer | Sida I. Wang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Bilingual lexicons map words in one language to their translations in another, and are typically induced by learning linear projections to align monolingual word embedding spaces. In this paper, we show it is possible to produce much higher quality lexicons with methods that combine (1) unsupervised bitext mining and (2) unsupervised word alignment. Directly applying a pipeline that uses recent algorithms for both subproblems significantly improves induced lexicon quality and further gains are possible by learning to filter the resulting lexical entries, with both unsupervised and semi-supervised schemes. Our final model outperforms the state of the art on the BUCC 2020 shared task by 14 F1 points averaged over 12 language pairs, while also providing a more interpretable approach that allows for rich reasoning of word meaning in context. Further analysis of our output and the standard reference lexicons suggests they are of comparable quality, and new benchmarks may be needed to measure further progress on this task.

Substructure Substitution: Structured Data Augmentation for NLP
Haoyue Shi | Karen Livescu | Kevin Gimpel
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


A Cross-Task Analysis of Text Span Representations
Shubham Toshniwal | Haoyue Shi | Bowen Shi | Lingyu Gao | Karen Livescu | Kevin Gimpel
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP

Many natural language processing (NLP) tasks involve reasoning with textual spans, including question answering, entity recognition, and coreference resolution. While extensive research has focused on functional architectures for representing words and sentences, there is less work on representing arbitrary spans of text within sentences. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive empirical evaluation of six span representation methods using eight pretrained language representation models across six tasks, including two tasks that we introduce. We find that, although some simple span representations are fairly reliable across tasks, in general the optimal span representation varies by task, and can also vary within different facets of individual tasks. We also find that the choice of span representation has a bigger impact with a fixed pretrained encoder than with a fine-tuned encoder.

On the Role of Supervision in Unsupervised Constituency Parsing
Haoyue Shi | Karen Livescu | Kevin Gimpel
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We analyze several recent unsupervised constituency parsing models, which are tuned with respect to the parsing F1 score on the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) development set (1,700 sentences). We introduce strong baselines for them, by training an existing supervised parsing model (Kitaev and Klein, 2018) on the same labeled examples they access. When training on the 1,700 examples, or even when using only 50 examples for training and 5 for development, such a few-shot parsing approach can outperform all the unsupervised parsing methods by a significant margin. Few-shot parsing can be further improved by a simple data augmentation method and self-training. This suggests that, in order to arrive at fair conclusions, we should carefully consider the amount of labeled data used for model development. We propose two protocols for future work on unsupervised parsing: (i) use fully unsupervised criteria for hyperparameter tuning and model selection; (ii) use as few labeled examples as possible for model development, and compare to few-shot parsing trained on the same labeled examples.


Visually Grounded Neural Syntax Acquisition
Haoyue Shi | Jiayuan Mao | Kevin Gimpel | Karen Livescu
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We present the Visually Grounded Neural Syntax Learner (VG-NSL), an approach for learning syntactic representations and structures without any explicit supervision. The model learns by looking at natural images and reading paired captions. VG-NSL generates constituency parse trees of texts, recursively composes representations for constituents, and matches them with images. We define concreteness of constituents by their matching scores with images, and use it to guide the parsing of text. Experiments on the MSCOCO data set show that VG-NSL outperforms various unsupervised parsing approaches that do not use visual grounding, in terms of F1 scores against gold parse trees. We find that VGNSL is much more stable with respect to the choice of random initialization and the amount of training data. We also find that the concreteness acquired by VG-NSL correlates well with a similar measure defined by linguists. Finally, we also apply VG-NSL to multiple languages in the Multi30K data set, showing that our model consistently outperforms prior unsupervised approaches.


Constructing High Quality Sense-specific Corpus and Word Embedding via Unsupervised Elimination of Pseudo Multi-sense
Haoyue Shi | Xihao Wang | Yuqi Sun | Junfeng Hu
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

Implicit Subjective and Sentimental Usages in Multi-sense Word Embeddings
Yuqi Sun | Haoyue Shi | Junfeng Hu
Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis

In multi-sense word embeddings, contextual variations in corpus may cause a univocal word to be embedded into different sense vectors. Shi et al. (2016) show that this kind of pseudo multi-senses can be eliminated by linear transformations. In this paper, we show that pseudo multi-senses may come from a uniform and meaningful phenomenon such as subjective and sentimental usage, though they are seemingly redundant. In this paper, we present an unsupervised algorithm to find a linear transformation which can minimize the transformed distance of a group of sense pairs. The major shrinking direction of this transformation is found to be related with subjective shift. Therefore, we can not only eliminate pseudo multi-senses in multisense embeddings, but also identify these subjective senses and tag the subjective and sentimental usage of words in the corpus automatically.

On Tree-Based Neural Sentence Modeling
Haoyue Shi | Hao Zhou | Jiaze Chen | Lei Li
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Neural networks with tree-based sentence encoders have shown better results on many downstream tasks. Most of existing tree-based encoders adopt syntactic parsing trees as the explicit structure prior. To study the effectiveness of different tree structures, we replace the parsing trees with trivial trees (i.e., binary balanced tree, left-branching tree and right-branching tree) in the encoders. Though trivial trees contain no syntactic information, those encoders get competitive or even better results on all of the ten downstream tasks we investigated. This surprising result indicates that explicit syntax guidance may not be the main contributor to the superior performances of tree-based neural sentence modeling. Further analysis show that tree modeling gives better results when crucial words are closer to the final representation. Additional experiments give more clues on how to design an effective tree-based encoder. Our code is open-source and available at https://github.com/ExplorerFreda/TreeEnc.

Learning Visually-Grounded Semantics from Contrastive Adversarial Samples
Haoyue Shi | Jiayuan Mao | Tete Xiao | Yuning Jiang | Jian Sun
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

We study the problem of grounding distributional representations of texts on the visual domain, namely visual-semantic embeddings (VSE for short). Begin with an insightful adversarial attack on VSE embeddings, we show the limitation of current frameworks and image-text datasets (e.g., MS-COCO) both quantitatively and qualitatively. The large gap between the number of possible constitutions of real-world semantics and the size of parallel data, to a large extent, restricts the model to establish a strong link between textual semantics and visual concepts. We alleviate this problem by augmenting the MS-COCO image captioning datasets with textual contrastive adversarial samples. These samples are synthesized using language priors of human and the WordNet knowledge base, and enforce the model to ground learned embeddings to concrete concepts within the image. This simple but powerful technique brings a noticeable improvement over the baselines on a diverse set of downstream tasks, in addition to defending known-type adversarial attacks. Codes are available at https://github.com/ExplorerFreda/VSE-C.


Real Multi-Sense or Pseudo Multi-Sense: An Approach to Improve Word Representation
Haoyue Shi | Caihua Li | Junfeng Hu
Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Linguistic Complexity (CL4LC)

Previous researches have shown that learning multiple representations for polysemous words can improve the performance of word embeddings on many tasks. However, this leads to another problem. Several vectors of a word may actually point to the same meaning, namely pseudo multi-sense. In this paper, we introduce the concept of pseudo multi-sense, and then propose an algorithm to detect such cases. With the consideration of the detected pseudo multi-sense cases, we try to refine the existing word embeddings to eliminate the influence of pseudo multi-sense. Moreover, we apply our algorithm on previous released multi-sense word embeddings and tested it on artificial word similarity tasks and the analogy task. The result of the experiments shows that diminishing pseudo multi-sense can improve the quality of word representations. Thus, our method is actually an efficient way to reduce linguistic complexity.