Hao Tian


Clip-Tuning: Towards Derivative-free Prompt Learning with a Mixture of Rewards
Yekun Chai | Shuohuan Wang | Yu Sun | Hao Tian | Hua Wu | Haifeng Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Derivative-free prompt learning has emerged as a lightweight alternative to prompt tuning, which only requires model inference to optimize the prompts. However, existing work did not take full advantage of the over-parameterized characteristics of large pre-trained language models (PLMs). In this paper, we propose Clip-Tuning, a simple yet effective method that adopts diverse frozen “thinned” networks of PLMs to obtain *a mixture of rewards* and thus advance the derivative-free prompt learning. The thinned networks consist of all the hidden units that survive a stationary dropout strategy, whose inference predictions reflect an ensemble of partial views over prompted training samples. Our method outperforms previous gradient-free prompt learning methods and achieves parity with gradient-based counterparts on seven language understanding benchmarks under few-shot settings.

ERNIE-Layout: Layout Knowledge Enhanced Pre-training for Visually-rich Document Understanding
Qiming Peng | Yinxu Pan | Wenjin Wang | Bin Luo | Zhenyu Zhang | Zhengjie Huang | Yuhui Cao | Weichong Yin | Yongfeng Chen | Yin Zhang | Shikun Feng | Yu Sun | Hao Tian | Hua Wu | Haifeng Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Recent years have witnessed the rise and success of pre-training techniques in visually-rich document understanding. However, most existing methods lack the systematic mining and utilization of layout-centered knowledge, leading to sub-optimal performances. In this paper, we propose ERNIE-Layout, a novel document pre-training solution with layout knowledge enhancement in the whole workflow, to learn better representations that combine the features from text, layout, and image. Specifically, we first rearrange input sequences in the serialization stage, and then present a correlative pre-training task, reading order prediction, to learn the proper reading order of documents. To improve the layout awareness of the model, we integrate a spatial-aware disentangled attention into the multi-modal transformer and a replaced regions prediction task into the pre-training phase. Experimental results show that ERNIE-Layout achieves superior performance on various downstream tasks, setting new state-of-the-art on key information extraction, document image classification, and document question answering datasets. The code and models are publicly available at PaddleNLP.


ERNIE-Doc: A Retrospective Long-Document Modeling Transformer
SiYu Ding | Junyuan Shang | Shuohuan Wang | Yu Sun | Hao Tian | Hua Wu | Haifeng Wang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Transformers are not suited for processing long documents, due to their quadratically increasing memory and time consumption. Simply truncating a long document or applying the sparse attention mechanism will incur the context fragmentation problem or lead to an inferior modeling capability against comparable model sizes. In this paper, we propose ERNIE-Doc, a document-level language pretraining model based on Recurrence Transformers. Two well-designed techniques, namely the retrospective feed mechanism and the enhanced recurrence mechanism, enable ERNIE-Doc, which has a much longer effective context length, to capture the contextual information of a complete document. We pretrain ERNIE-Doc to explicitly learn the relationships among segments with an additional document-aware segment-reordering objective. Various experiments were conducted on both English and Chinese document-level tasks. ERNIE-Doc improved the state-of-the-art language modeling result of perplexity to 16.8 on WikiText-103. Moreover, it outperformed competitive pretraining models by a large margin on most language understanding tasks, such as text classification and question answering.

ERNIE-Gram: Pre-Training with Explicitly N-Gram Masked Language Modeling for Natural Language Understanding
Dongling Xiao | Yu-Kun Li | Han Zhang | Yu Sun | Hao Tian | Hua Wu | Haifeng Wang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Coarse-grained linguistic information, such as named entities or phrases, facilitates adequately representation learning in pre-training. Previous works mainly focus on extending the objective of BERT’s Masked Language Modeling (MLM) from masking individual tokens to contiguous sequences of n tokens. We argue that such contiguously masking method neglects to model the intra-dependencies and inter-relation of coarse-grained linguistic information. As an alternative, we propose ERNIE-Gram, an explicitly n-gram masking method to enhance the integration of coarse-grained information into pre-training. In ERNIE-Gram, n-grams are masked and predicted directly using explicit n-gram identities rather than contiguous sequences of n tokens. Furthermore, ERNIE-Gram employs a generator model to sample plausible n-gram identities as optional n-gram masks and predict them in both coarse-grained and fine-grained manners to enable comprehensive n-gram prediction and relation modeling. We pre-train ERNIE-Gram on English and Chinese text corpora and fine-tune on 19 downstream tasks. Experimental results show that ERNIE-Gram outperforms previous pre-training models like XLNet and RoBERTa by a large margin, and achieves comparable results with state-of-the-art methods. The source codes and pre-trained models have been released at https://github.com/PaddlePaddle/ERNIE.

ERNIE-M: Enhanced Multilingual Representation by Aligning Cross-lingual Semantics with Monolingual Corpora
Xuan Ouyang | Shuohuan Wang | Chao Pang | Yu Sun | Hao Tian | Hua Wu | Haifeng Wang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent studies have demonstrated that pre-trained cross-lingual models achieve impressive performance in downstream cross-lingual tasks. This improvement benefits from learning a large amount of monolingual and parallel corpora. Although it is generally acknowledged that parallel corpora are critical for improving the model performance, existing methods are often constrained by the size of parallel corpora, especially for low-resource languages. In this paper, we propose Ernie-M, a new training method that encourages the model to align the representation of multiple languages with monolingual corpora, to overcome the constraint that the parallel corpus size places on the model performance. Our key insight is to integrate back-translation into the pre-training process. We generate pseudo-parallel sentence pairs on a monolingual corpus to enable the learning of semantic alignments between different languages, thereby enhancing the semantic modeling of cross-lingual models. Experimental results show that Ernie-M outperforms existing cross-lingual models and delivers new state-of-the-art results in various cross-lingual downstream tasks. The codes and pre-trained models will be made publicly available.


SKEP: Sentiment Knowledge Enhanced Pre-training for Sentiment Analysis
Hao Tian | Can Gao | Xinyan Xiao | Hao Liu | Bolei He | Hua Wu | Haifeng Wang | Feng Wu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Recently, sentiment analysis has seen remarkable advance with the help of pre-training approaches. However, sentiment knowledge, such as sentiment words and aspect-sentiment pairs, is ignored in the process of pre-training, despite the fact that they are widely used in traditional sentiment analysis approaches. In this paper, we introduce Sentiment Knowledge Enhanced Pre-training (SKEP) in order to learn a unified sentiment representation for multiple sentiment analysis tasks. With the help of automatically-mined knowledge, SKEP conducts sentiment masking and constructs three sentiment knowledge prediction objectives, so as to embed sentiment information at the word, polarity and aspect level into pre-trained sentiment representation. In particular, the prediction of aspect-sentiment pairs is converted into multi-label classification, aiming to capture the dependency between words in a pair. Experiments on three kinds of sentiment tasks show that SKEP significantly outperforms strong pre-training baseline, and achieves new state-of-the-art results on most of the test datasets. We release our code at https://github.com/baidu/Senta.


Multi-view Response Selection for Human-Computer Conversation
Xiangyang Zhou | Daxiang Dong | Hua Wu | Shiqi Zhao | Dianhai Yu | Hao Tian | Xuan Liu | Rui Yan
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing


Policy Learning for Domain Selection in an Extensible Multi-domain Spoken Dialogue System
Zhuoran Wang | Hongliang Chen | Guanchun Wang | Hao Tian | Hua Wu | Haifeng Wang
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)


Cross-lingual Projections between Languages from Different Families
Mo Yu | Tiejun Zhao | Yalong Bai | Hao Tian | Dianhai Yu
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Compound Embedding Features for Semi-supervised Learning
Mo Yu | Tiejun Zhao | Daxiang Dong | Hao Tian | Dianhai Yu
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies


Chinese Word Segmentation with Maximum Entropy and N-gram Language Model
Xinhao Wang | Xiaojun Lin | Dianhai Yu | Hao Tian | Xihong Wu
Proceedings of the Fifth SIGHAN Workshop on Chinese Language Processing