Haifeng Hu


Multimodal Contrastive Learning via Uni-Modal Coding and Cross-Modal Prediction for Multimodal Sentiment Analysis
Ronghao Lin | Haifeng Hu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Multimodal representation learning is a challenging task in which previous work mostly focus on either uni-modality pre-training or cross-modality fusion. In fact, we regard modeling multimodal representation as building a skyscraper, where laying stable foundation and designing the main structure are equally essential. The former is like encoding robust uni-modal representation while the later is like integrating interactive information among different modalities, both of which are critical to learning an effective multimodal representation. Recently, contrastive learning has been successfully applied in representation learning, which can be utilized as the pillar of the skyscraper and benefit the model to extract the most important features contained in the multimodal data. In this paper, we propose a novel framework named MultiModal Contrastive Learning (MMCL) for multimodal representation to capture intra- and inter-modality dynamics simultaneously. Specifically, we devise uni-modal contrastive coding with an efficient uni-modal feature augmentation strategy to filter inherent noise contained in acoustic and visual modality and acquire more robust uni-modality representations. Besides, a pseudo siamese network is presented to predict representation across different modalities, which successfully captures cross-modal dynamics. Moreover, we design two contrastive learning tasks, instance- and sentiment-based contrastive learning, to promote the process of prediction and learn more interactive information related to sentiment. Extensive experiments conducted on two public datasets demonstrate that our method surpasses the state-of-the-art methods.

Curriculum Learning Meets Weakly Supervised Multimodal Correlation Learning
Sijie Mai | Ya Sun | Haifeng Hu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In the field of multimodal sentiment analysis (MSA), a few studies have leveraged the inherent modality correlation information stored in samples for self-supervised learning. However, they feed the training pairs in a random order without consideration of difficulty. Without human annotation, the generated training pairs of self-supervised learning often contain noise. If noisy or hard pairs are used for training at the easy stage, the model might be stuck in bad local optimum. In this paper, we inject curriculum learning into weakly supervised multimodal correlation learning. The weakly supervised correlation learning leverages the label information to generate scores for negative pairs to learn a more discriminative embedding space, where negative pairs are defined as two unimodal embeddings from different samples. To assist the correlation learning, we feed the training pairs to the model according to difficulty by the proposed curriculum learning, which consists of elaborately designed scoring and feeding functions. The scoring function computes the difficulty of pairs using pre-trained and current correlation predictors, where the pairs with large losses are defined as hard pairs. Notably, the hardest pairs are discarded in our algorithm, which are assumed as noisy pairs. Moreover, the feeding function takes the difference of correlation losses as feedback to determine the feeding actions (‘stay’, ‘step back’, or ‘step forward’). The proposed method reaches state-of-the-art performance on MSA.


Which is Making the Contribution: Modulating Unimodal and Cross-modal Dynamics for Multimodal Sentiment Analysis
Ying Zeng | Sijie Mai | Haifeng Hu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Multimodal sentiment analysis (MSA) draws increasing attention with the availability of multimodal data. The boost in performance of MSA models is mainly hindered by two problems. On the one hand, recent MSA works mostly focus on learning cross-modal dynamics, but neglect to explore an optimal solution for unimodal networks, which determines the lower limit of MSA models. On the other hand, noisy information hidden in each modality interferes the learning of correct cross-modal dynamics. To address the above-mentioned problems, we propose a novel MSA framework Modulation Model for Multimodal Sentiment Analysis (M3SA) to identify the contribution of modalities and reduce the impact of noisy information, so as to better learn unimodal and cross-modal dynamics. Specifically, modulation loss is designed to modulate the loss contribution based on the confidence of individual modalities in each utterance, so as to explore an optimal update solution for each unimodal network. Besides, contrary to most existing works which fail to explicitly filter out noisy information, we devise a modality filter module to identify and filter out modality noise for the learning of correct cross-modal embedding. Extensive experiments on publicly datasets demonstrate that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance.


Learning to Contrast the Counterfactual Samples for Robust Visual Question Answering
Zujie Liang | Weitao Jiang | Haifeng Hu | Jiaying Zhu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

In the task of Visual Question Answering (VQA), most state-of-the-art models tend to learn spurious correlations in the training set and achieve poor performance in out-of-distribution test data. Some methods of generating counterfactual samples have been proposed to alleviate this problem. However, the counterfactual samples generated by most previous methods are simply added to the training data for augmentation and are not fully utilized. Therefore, we introduce a novel self-supervised contrastive learning mechanism to learn the relationship between original samples, factual samples and counterfactual samples. With the better cross-modal joint embeddings learned from the auxiliary training objective, the reasoning capability and robustness of the VQA model are boosted significantly. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method by surpassing current state-of-the-art models on the VQA-CP dataset, a diagnostic benchmark for assessing the VQA model’s robustness.


Divide, Conquer and Combine: Hierarchical Feature Fusion Network with Local and Global Perspectives for Multimodal Affective Computing
Sijie Mai | Haifeng Hu | Songlong Xing
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We propose a general strategy named ‘divide, conquer and combine’ for multimodal fusion. Instead of directly fusing features at holistic level, we conduct fusion hierarchically so that both local and global interactions are considered for a comprehensive interpretation of multimodal embeddings. In the ‘divide’ and ‘conquer’ stages, we conduct local fusion by exploring the interaction of a portion of the aligned feature vectors across various modalities lying within a sliding window, which ensures that each part of multimodal embeddings are explored sufficiently. On its basis, global fusion is conducted in the ‘combine’ stage to explore the interconnection across local interactions, via an Attentive Bi-directional Skip-connected LSTM that directly connects distant local interactions and integrates two levels of attention mechanism. In this way, local interactions can exchange information sufficiently and thus obtain an overall view of multimodal information. Our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on multimodal affective computing with higher efficiency.


Multimodal DBN for Predicting High-Quality Answers in cQA portals
Haifeng Hu | Bingquan Liu | Baoxun Wang | Ming Liu | Xiaolong Wang
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)