Gerardo Sierra Martínez


Temporal Relations Annotation and Extrapolation Based on Semi-intervals and Boundig Relations
Alejandro Pimentel | Gemma Bel Enguix | Gerardo Sierra Martínez | Azucena Montes
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The computational treatment of temporal relations is based on the work of Allen, who establishes 13 different types, and Freksa, who designs a cognitive procedure to manage them. Freksa’s notation is not widely used because, although it has cognitive and expressive advantages, it is too complex from the computational perspective. This paper proposes a system for the annotation and management of temporal relations that combines the richness and expressiveness of Freksa’s approach with the simplicity of Allen’s notation. Our method is summarized in the application of bounding relations, thanks to which it is possible to obtain the temporary representation of complete neighborhoods capable of representing vague temporal relations such as those that can be frequently found in a text. Such advantages are obtained without the need to greatly increase the complexity of the labeling process since the markup language is almost the same as TimeML, to which only a second temporary “relType”’ type label relationship is added. Our experiments show that the temporal relationships that present vagueness are in fact much more common than those in which a single relationship can be established precisely. For these reasons, our new labeling system achieves a more agreeable representation of temporal relations.

Automatic Word Association Norms (AWAN)
Jorge Reyes-Magaña | Gerardo Sierra Martínez | Gemma Bel-Enguix | Helena Gomez-Adorno
Proceedings of the Workshop on the Cognitive Aspects of the Lexicon

Word Association Norms (WAN) are collections that present stimuli words and the set of their associated responses. The corpus is widely used in diverse areas of expertise. In order to reduce the effort to have a good quality resource that can be reproduced in many languages with minimum sources, a methodology to build Automatic Word Association Norms is proposed (AWAN). The methodology has an input of two simple elements: a) dictionary, and b) pre-processed Word Embeddings. This new kind of WAN is evaluated in two ways: i) learning word embeddings based on the node2vec algorithm and comparing them with human annotated benchmarks, and ii) performing a lexical search for a reverse dictionary. Both evaluations are done in a weighted graph with the AWAN lexical elements. The results showed that the methodology produces good quality AWANs.

Enhancing Job Searches in Mexico City with Language Technologies
Gerardo Sierra Martínez | Gemma Bel-Enguix | Helena Gómez-Adorno | Juan Manuel Torres Moreno | Tonatiuh Hernández-García | Julio V Guadarrama-Olvera | Jesús-Germán Ortiz-Barajas | Ángela María Rojas | Tomas Damerau | Soledad Aragón Martínez
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Language Technologies for Government and Public Administration (LT4Gov)

In this paper, we show the enhancing of the Demanded Skills Diagnosis (DiCoDe: Diagnóstico de Competencias Demandadas), a system developed by Mexico City’s Ministry of Labor and Employment Promotion (STyFE: Secretaría de Trabajo y Fomento del Empleo de la Ciudad de México) that seeks to reduce information asymmetries between job seekers and employers. The project uses webscraping techniques to retrieve job vacancies posted on private job portals on a daily basis and with the purpose of informing training and individual case management policies as well as labor market monitoring. For this purpose, a collaboration project between STyFE and the Language Engineering Group (GIL: Grupo de Ingeniería Lingüística) was established in order to enhance DiCoDe by applying NLP models and semantic analysis. By this collaboration, DiCoDe’s job vacancies system’s macro-structure and its geographic referencing at the city hall (municipality) level were improved. More specifically, dictionaries were created to identify demanded competencies, skills and abilities (CSA) and algorithms were developed for dynamic classifying of vacancies and identifying terms for searches on free text, in order to improve the results and processing time of queries.

CPLM, a Parallel Corpus for Mexican Languages: Development and Interface
Gerardo Sierra Martínez | Cynthia Montaño | Gemma Bel-Enguix | Diego Córdova | Margarita Mota Montoya
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Mexico is a Spanish speaking country that has a great language diversity, with 68 linguistic groups and 364 varieties. As they face a lack of representation in education, government, public services and media, they present high levels of endangerment. Due to the lack of data available on social media and the internet, few technologies have been developed for these languages. To analyze different linguistic phenomena in the country, the Language Engineering Group developed the Corpus Paralelo de Lenguas Mexicanas (CPLM) [The Mexican Languages Parallel Corpus], a collaborative parallel corpus for the low-resourced languages of Mexico. The CPLM aligns Spanish with six indigenous languages: Maya, Ch’ol, Mazatec, Mixtec, Otomi, and Nahuatl. First, this paper describes the process of building the CPLM: text searching, digitalization and alignment process. Furthermore, we present some difficulties regarding dialectal and orthographic variations. Second, we present the interface and types of searching as well as the use of filters.


A Parallel Corpus Mixtec-Spanish
Cynthia Montaño | Gerardo Sierra Martínez | Gemma Bel-Enguix | Helena Gomez
Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Widening NLP

This work is about the compilation process of parallel documents Spanish-Mixtec. There are not many Spanish-Mixec parallel texts and most of the sources are non-digital books. Due to this, we need to face the errors when digitizing the sources and difficulties in sentence alignment, as well as the fact that does not exist a standard orthography. Our parallel corpus consists of sixty texts coming from books and digital repositories. These documents belong to different domains: history, traditional stories, didactic material, recipes, ethnographical descriptions of each town and instruction manuals for disease prevention. We have classified this material in five major categories: didactic (6 texts), educative (6 texts), interpretative (7 texts), narrative (39 texts), and poetic (2 texts). The final total of tokens is 49,814 Spanish words and 47,774 Mixtec words. The texts belong to the states of Oaxaca (48 texts), Guerrero (9 texts) and Puebla (3 texts). According to this data, we see that the corpus is unbalanced in what refers to the representation of the different territories. While 55% of speakers are in Oaxaca, 80% of texts come from this region. Guerrero has the 30% of speakers and the 15% of texts and Puebla, with the 15% of the speakers has a representation of the 5% in the corpus.