Gerard I. Gállego


Pretrained Speech Encoders and Efficient Fine-tuning Methods for Speech Translation: UPC at IWSLT 2022
Ioannis Tsiamas | Gerard I. Gállego | Carlos Escolano | José Fonollosa | Marta R. Costa-jussà
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2022)

This paper describes the submissions of the UPC Machine Translation group to the IWSLT 2022 Offline Speech Translation and Speech-to-Speech Translation tracks. The offline task involves translating English speech to German, Japanese and Chinese text. Our Speech Translation systems are trained end-to-end and are based on large pretrained speech and text models. We use an efficient fine-tuning technique that trains only specific layers of our system, and explore the use of adapter modules for the non-trainable layers. We further investigate the suitability of different speech encoders (wav2vec 2.0, HuBERT) for our models and the impact of knowledge distillation from the Machine Translation model that we use for the decoder (mBART). For segmenting the IWSLT test sets we fine-tune a pretrained audio segmentation model and achieve improvements of 5 BLEU compared to the given segmentation. Our best single model uses HuBERT and parallel adapters and achieves 29.42 BLEU at English-German MuST-C tst-COMMON and 26.77 at IWSLT 2020 test. By ensembling many models, we further increase translation quality to 30.83 BLEU and 27.78 accordingly. Furthermore, our submission for English-Japanese achieves 15.85 and English-Chinese obtains 25.63 BLEU on the MuST-C tst-COMMON sets. Finally, we extend our system to perform English-German Speech-to-Speech Translation with a pretrained Text-to-Speech model.

Evaluating Gender Bias in Speech Translation
Marta R. Costa-jussà | Christine Basta | Gerard I. Gállego
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

The scientific community is increasingly aware of the necessity to embrace pluralism and consistently represent major and minor social groups. Currently, there are no standard evaluation techniques for different types of biases. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to provide evaluation sets and protocols to measure existing biases in our automatic systems. Evaluating the biases should be an essential step towards mitigating them in the systems. This paper introduces WinoST, a new freely available challenge set for evaluating gender bias in speech translation. WinoST is the speech version of WinoMT, an MT challenge set, and both follow an evaluation protocol to measure gender accuracy. Using an S-Transformer end-to-end speech translation system, we report the gender bias evaluation on four language pairs, and we reveal the inaccuracies in translations generating gender-stereotyped translations.

Multiformer: A Head-Configurable Transformer-Based Model for Direct Speech Translation
Gerard Sant | Gerard I. Gállego | Belen Alastruey | Marta Ruiz Costa-jussà
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Student Research Workshop

Transformer-based models have been achieving state-of-the-art results in several fields of Natural Language Processing. However, its direct application to speech tasks is not trivial. The nature of this sequences carries problems such as long sequence lengths and redundancy between adjacent tokens. Therefore, we believe that regular self-attention mechanism might not be well suited for it. Different approaches have been proposed to overcome these problems, such as the use of efficient attention mechanisms. However, the use of these methods usually comes with a cost, which is a performance reduction caused by information loss. In this study, we present the Multiformer, a Transformer-based model which allows the use of different attention mechanisms on each head. By doing this, the model is able to bias the self-attention towards the extraction of more diverse token interactions, and the information loss is reduced. Finally, we perform an analysis of the head contributions, and we observe that those architectures where all heads relevance is uniformly distributed obtain better results. Our results show that mixing attention patterns along the different heads and layers outperforms our baseline by up to 0.7 BLEU.

On the Locality of Attention in Direct Speech Translation
Belen Alastruey | Javier Ferrando | Gerard I. Gállego | Marta R. Costa-jussà
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Transformers have achieved state-of-the-art results across multiple NLP tasks. However, the self-attention mechanism complexity scales quadratically with the sequence length, creating an obstacle for tasks involving long sequences, like in the speech domain. In this paper, we discuss the usefulness of self-attention for Direct Speech Translation. First, we analyze the layer-wise token contributions in the self-attention of the encoder, unveiling local diagonal patterns. To prove that some attention weights are avoidable, we propose to substitute the standard self-attention with a local efficient one, setting the amount of context used based on the results of the analysis. With this approach, our model matches the baseline performance, and improves the efficiency by skipping the computation of those weights that standard attention discards.

Measuring the Mixing of Contextual Information in the Transformer
Javier Ferrando | Gerard I. Gállego | Marta R. Costa-jussà
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The Transformer architecture aggregates input information through the self-attention mechanism, but there is no clear understanding of how this information is mixed across the entire model. Additionally, recent works have demonstrated that attention weights alone are not enough to describe the flow of information. In this paper, we consider the whole attention block –multi-head attention, residual connection, and layer normalization– and define a metric to measure token-to-token interactions within each layer. Then, we aggregate layer-wise interpretations to provide input attribution scores for model predictions. Experimentally, we show that our method, ALTI (Aggregation of Layer-wise Token-to-token Interactions), provides more faithful explanations and increased robustness than gradient-based methods.

Towards Opening the Black Box of Neural Machine Translation: Source and Target Interpretations of the Transformer
Javier Ferrando | Gerard I. Gállego | Belen Alastruey | Carlos Escolano | Marta R. Costa-jussà
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In Neural Machine Translation (NMT), each token prediction is conditioned on the source sentence and the target prefix (what has been previously translated at a decoding step). However, previous work on interpretability in NMT has mainly focused solely on source sentence tokens’ attributions. Therefore, we lack a full understanding of the influences of every input token (source sentence and target prefix) in the model predictions. In this work, we propose an interpretability method that tracks input tokens’ attributions for both contexts. Our method, which can be extended to any encoder-decoder Transformer-based model, allows us to better comprehend the inner workings of current NMT models. We apply the proposed method to both bilingual and multilingual Transformers and present insights into their behaviour.

Tackling Low-Resourced Sign Language Translation: UPC at WMT-SLT 22
Laia Tarres | Gerard I. Gállego | Xavier Giro-i-nieto | Jordi Torres
Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Machine Translation (WMT)

This paper describes the system developed at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya for the Workshop on Machine Translation 2022 Sign Language Translation Task, in particular, for the sign-to-text direction. We use a Transformer model implemented with the Fairseq modeling toolkit. We have experimented with the vocabulary size, data augmentation techniques and pretraining the model with the PHOENIX-14T dataset. Our system obtains 0.50 BLEU score for the test set, improving the organizers’ baseline by 0.38 BLEU. We remark the poor results for both the baseline and our system, and thus, the unreliability of our findings.


End-to-End Speech Translation with Pre-trained Models and Adapters: UPC at IWSLT 2021
Gerard I. Gállego | Ioannis Tsiamas | Carlos Escolano | José A. R. Fonollosa | Marta R. Costa-jussà
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2021)

This paper describes the submission to the IWSLT 2021 offline speech translation task by the UPC Machine Translation group. The task consists of building a system capable of translating English audio recordings extracted from TED talks into German text. Submitted systems can be either cascade or end-to-end and use a custom or given segmentation. Our submission is an end-to-end speech translation system, which combines pre-trained models (Wav2Vec 2.0 and mBART) with coupling modules between the encoder and decoder, and uses an efficient fine-tuning technique, which trains only 20% of its total parameters. We show that adding an Adapter to the system and pre-training it, can increase the convergence speed and the final result, with which we achieve a BLEU score of 27.3 on the MuST-C test set. Our final model is an ensemble that obtains 28.22 BLEU score on the same set. Our submission also uses a custom segmentation algorithm that employs pre-trained Wav2Vec 2.0 for identifying periods of untranscribable text and can bring improvements of 2.5 to 3 BLEU score on the IWSLT 2019 test set, as compared to the result with the given segmentation.