Gene Kim


Monotonic Inference for Underspecified Episodic Logic
Gene Kim | Mandar Juvekar | Lenhart Schubert
Proceedings of the 1st and 2nd Workshops on Natural Logic Meets Machine Learning (NALOMA)

We present a method of making natural logic inferences from Unscoped Logical Form of Episodic Logic. We establish a correspondence between inference rules of scope resolved Episodic Logic and the natural logic treatment by Sánchez Valencia (1991a), and hence demonstrate the ability to handle foundational natural logic inferences from prior literature as well as more general nested monotonicity inferences.

A (Mostly) Symbolic System for Monotonic Inference with Unscoped Episodic Logical Forms
Gene Kim | Mandar Juvekar | Junis Ekmekciu | Viet Duong | Lenhart Schubert
Proceedings of the 1st and 2nd Workshops on Natural Logic Meets Machine Learning (NALOMA)

We implement the formalization of natural logic-like monotonic inference using Unscoped Episodic Logical Forms (ULFs) by Kim et al. (2020). We demonstrate this system’s capacity to handle a variety of challenging semantic phenomena using the FraCaS dataset (Cooper et al., 1996). These results give empirical evidence for prior claims that ULF is an appropriate representation to mediate natural logic-like inferences.

A Transition-based Parser for Unscoped Episodic Logical Forms
Gene Kim | Viet Duong | Xin Lu | Lenhart Schubert
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS)

“Episodic Logic: Unscoped Logical Form” (EL-ULF) is a semantic representation capturing predicate-argument structure as well as more challenging aspects of language within the Episodic Logic formalism. We present the first learned approach for parsing sentences into ULFs, using a growing set of annotated examples. The results provide a strong baseline for future improvement. Our method learns a sequence-to-sequence model for predicting the transition action sequence within a modified cache transition system. We evaluate the efficacy of type grammar-based constraints, a word-to-symbol lexicon, and transition system state features in this task. Our system is available at We also present the first official annotated ULF dataset at


Generating Discourse Inferences from Unscoped Episodic Logical Formulas
Gene Kim | Benjamin Kane | Viet Duong | Muskaan Mendiratta | Graeme McGuire | Sophie Sackstein | Georgiy Platonov | Lenhart Schubert
Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Designing Meaning Representations

Abstract Unscoped episodic logical form (ULF) is a semantic representation capturing the predicate-argument structure of English within the episodic logic formalism in relation to the syntactic structure, while leaving scope, word sense, and anaphora unresolved. We describe how ULF can be used to generate natural language inferences that are grounded in the semantic and syntactic structure through a small set of rules defined over interpretable predicates and transformations on ULFs. The semantic restrictions placed by ULF semantic types enables us to ensure that the inferred structures are semantically coherent while the nearness to syntax enables accurate mapping to English. We demonstrate these inferences on four classes of conversationally-oriented inferences in a mixed genre dataset with 68.5% precision from human judgments.


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Intension, Attitude, and Tense Annotation in a High-Fidelity Semantic Representation
Gene Kim | Lenhart Schubert
Proceedings of the Workshop Computational Semantics Beyond Events and Roles

This paper describes current efforts in developing an annotation schema and guidelines for sentences in Episodic Logic (EL). We focus on important distinctions for representing modality, attitudes, and tense and present an annotation schema that makes these distinctions. EL has proved competitive with other logical formulations in speed and inference-enablement, while expressing a wider array of natural language phenomena including intensional modification of predicates and sentences, propositional attitudes, and tense and aspect.


High-Fidelity Lexical Axiom Construction from Verb Glosses
Gene Kim | Lenhart Schubert
Proceedings of the Fifth Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics