Garima Lalwani


Using Optimal Transport as Alignment Objective for fine-tuning Multilingual Contextualized Embeddings
Sawsan Alqahtani | Garima Lalwani | Yi Zhang | Salvatore Romeo | Saab Mansour
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Recent studies have proposed different methods to improve multilingual word representations in contextualized settings including techniques that align between source and target embedding spaces. For contextualized embeddings, alignment becomes more complex as we additionally take context into consideration. In this work, we propose using Optimal Transport (OT) as an alignment objective during fine-tuning to further improve multilingual contextualized representations for downstream cross-lingual transfer. This approach does not require word-alignment pairs prior to fine-tuning that may lead to sub-optimal matching and instead learns the word alignments within context in an unsupervised manner. It also allows different types of mappings due to soft matching between source and target sentences. We benchmark our proposed method on two tasks (XNLI and XQuAD) and achieve improvements over baselines as well as competitive results compared to similar recent works.


An Empirical Study on Robustness to Spurious Correlations using Pre-trained Language Models
Lifu Tu | Garima Lalwani | Spandana Gella | He He
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 8

Recent work has shown that pre-trained language models such as BERT improve robustness to spurious correlations in the dataset. Intrigued by these results, we find that the key to their success is generalization from a small amount of counterexamples where the spurious correlations do not hold. When such minority examples are scarce, pre-trained models perform as poorly as models trained from scratch. In the case of extreme minority, we propose to use multi-task learning (MTL) to improve generalization. Our experiments on natural language inference and paraphrase identification show that MTL with the right auxiliary tasks significantly improves performance on challenging examples without hurting the in-distribution performance. Further, we show that the gain from MTL mainly comes from improved generalization from the minority examples. Our results highlight the importance of data diversity for overcoming spurious correlations.1

Context Analysis for Pre-trained Masked Language Models
Yi-An Lai | Garima Lalwani | Yi Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Pre-trained language models that learn contextualized word representations from a large un-annotated corpus have become a standard component for many state-of-the-art NLP systems. Despite their successful applications in various downstream NLP tasks, the extent of contextual impact on the word representation has not been explored. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of contextual impact in Transformer- and BiLSTM-based masked language models. We follow two different approaches to evaluate the impact of context: a masking based approach that is architecture agnostic, and a gradient based approach that requires back-propagation through networks. The findings suggest significant differences on the contextual impact between the two model architectures. Through further breakdown of analysis by syntactic categories, we find the contextual impact in Transformer-based MLM aligns well with linguistic intuition. We further explore the Transformer attention pruning based on our findings in contextual analysis.


CASA-NLU: Context-Aware Self-Attentive Natural Language Understanding for Task-Oriented Chatbots
Arshit Gupta | Peng Zhang | Garima Lalwani | Mona Diab
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Natural Language Understanding (NLU) is a core component of dialog systems. It typically involves two tasks - Intent Classification (IC) and Slot Labeling (SL), which are then followed by a dialogue management (DM) component. Such NLU systems cater to utterances in isolation, thus pushing the problem of context management to DM. However, contextual information is critical to the correct prediction of intents in a conversation. Prior work on contextual NLU has been limited in terms of the types of contextual signals used and the understanding of their impact on the model. In this work, we propose a context-aware self-attentive NLU (CASA-NLU) model that uses multiple signals over a variable context window, such as previous intents, slots, dialog acts and utterances, in addition to the current user utterance. CASA-NLU outperforms a recurrent contextual NLU baseline on two conversational datasets, yielding a gain of up to 7% on the IC task. Moreover, a non-contextual variant of CASA-NLU achieves state-of-the-art performance on standard public datasets - SNIPS and ATIS.