Ganesh Jawahar


Automatic Detection of Entity-Manipulated Text using Factual Knowledge
Ganesh Jawahar | Muhammad Abdul-Mageed | Laks Lakshmanan
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

In this work, we focus on the problem of distinguishing a human written news article from a news article that is created by manipulating entities in a human written news article (e.g., replacing entities with factually incorrect entities). Such manipulated articles can mislead the reader by posing as a human written news article. We propose a neural network based detector that detects manipulated news articles by reasoning about the facts mentioned in the article. Our proposed detector exploits factual knowledge via graph convolutional neural network along with the textual information in the news article. We also create challenging datasets for this task by considering various strategies to generate the new replacement entity (e.g., entity generation from GPT-2). In all the settings, our proposed model either matches or outperforms the state-of-the-art detector in terms of accuracy. Our code and data are available at


Exploring Text-to-Text Transformers for English to Hinglish Machine Translation with Synthetic Code-Mixing
Ganesh Jawahar | El Moatez Billah Nagoudi | Muhammad Abdul-Mageed | Laks Lakshmanan, V.S.
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching

We describe models focused at the understudied problem of translating between monolingual and code-mixed language pairs. More specifically, we offer a wide range of models that convert monolingual English text into Hinglish (code-mixed Hindi and English). Given the recent success of pretrained language models, we also test the utility of two recent Transformer-based encoder-decoder models (i.e., mT5 and mBART) on the task finding both to work well. Given the paucity of training data for code-mixing, we also propose a dependency-free method for generating code-mixed texts from bilingual distributed representations that we exploit for improving language model performance. In particular, armed with this additional data, we adopt a curriculum learning approach where we first finetune the language models on synthetic data then on gold code-mixed data. We find that, although simple, our synthetic code-mixing method is competitive with (and in some cases is even superior to) several standard methods (backtranslation, method based on equivalence constraint theory) under a diverse set of conditions. Our work shows that the mT5 model, finetuned following the curriculum learning procedure, achieves best translation performance (12.67 BLEU). Our models place first in the overall ranking of the English-Hinglish official shared task.


Automatic Detection of Machine Generated Text: A Critical Survey
Ganesh Jawahar | Muhammad Abdul-Mageed | Laks Lakshmanan, V.S.
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Text generative models (TGMs) excel in producing text that matches the style of human language reasonably well. Such TGMs can be misused by adversaries, e.g., by automatically generating fake news and fake product reviews that can look authentic and fool humans. Detectors that can distinguish text generated by TGM from human written text play a vital role in mitigating such misuse of TGMs. Recently, there has been a flurry of works from both natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML) communities to build accurate detectors for English. Despite the importance of this problem, there is currently no work that surveys this fast-growing literature and introduces newcomers to important research challenges. In this work, we fill this void by providing a critical survey and review of this literature to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of this problem. We conduct an in-depth error analysis of the state-of-the-art detector and discuss research directions to guide future work in this exciting area.

Simple, Interpretable and Stable Method for Detecting Words with Usage Change across Corpora
Hila Gonen | Ganesh Jawahar | Djamé Seddah | Yoav Goldberg
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The problem of comparing two bodies of text and searching for words that differ in their usage between them arises often in digital humanities and computational social science. This is commonly approached by training word embeddings on each corpus, aligning the vector spaces, and looking for words whose cosine distance in the aligned space is large. However, these methods often require extensive filtering of the vocabulary to perform well, and - as we show in this work - result in unstable, and hence less reliable, results. We propose an alternative approach that does not use vector space alignment, and instead considers the neighbors of each word. The method is simple, interpretable and stable. We demonstrate its effectiveness in 9 different setups, considering different corpus splitting criteria (age, gender and profession of tweet authors, time of tweet) and different languages (English, French and Hebrew).


What Does BERT Learn about the Structure of Language?
Ganesh Jawahar | Benoît Sagot | Djamé Seddah
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

BERT is a recent language representation model that has surprisingly performed well in diverse language understanding benchmarks. This result indicates the possibility that BERT networks capture structural information about language. In this work, we provide novel support for this claim by performing a series of experiments to unpack the elements of English language structure learned by BERT. Our findings are fourfold. BERT’s phrasal representation captures the phrase-level information in the lower layers. The intermediate layers of BERT compose a rich hierarchy of linguistic information, starting with surface features at the bottom, syntactic features in the middle followed by semantic features at the top. BERT requires deeper layers while tracking subject-verb agreement to handle long-term dependency problem. Finally, the compositional scheme underlying BERT mimics classical, tree-like structures.

Contextualized Diachronic Word Representations
Ganesh Jawahar | Djamé Seddah
Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Computational Approaches to Historical Language Change

Diachronic word embeddings play a key role in capturing interesting patterns about how language evolves over time. Most of the existing work focuses on studying corpora spanning across several decades, which is understandably still not a possibility when working on social media-based user-generated content. In this work, we address the problem of studying semantic changes in a large Twitter corpus collected over five years, a much shorter period than what is usually the norm in diachronic studies. We devise a novel attentional model, based on Bernoulli word embeddings, that are conditioned on contextual extra-linguistic (social) features such as network, spatial and socio-economic variables, which are associated with Twitter users, as well as topic-based features. We posit that these social features provide an inductive bias that helps our model to overcome the narrow time-span regime problem. Our extensive experiments reveal that our proposed model is able to capture subtle semantic shifts without being biased towards frequency cues and also works well when certain contextual features are absent. Our model fits the data better than current state-of-the-art dynamic word embedding models and therefore is a promising tool to study diachronic semantic changes over small time periods.


ELMoLex: Connecting ELMo and Lexicon Features for Dependency Parsing
Ganesh Jawahar | Benjamin Muller | Amal Fethi | Louis Martin | Éric Villemonte de la Clergerie | Benoît Sagot | Djamé Seddah
Proceedings of the CoNLL 2018 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies

In this paper, we present the details of the neural dependency parser and the neural tagger submitted by our team ‘ParisNLP’ to the CoNLL 2018 Shared Task on parsing from raw text to Universal Dependencies. We augment the deep Biaffine (BiAF) parser (Dozat and Manning, 2016) with novel features to perform competitively: we utilize an indomain version of ELMo features (Peters et al., 2018) which provide context-dependent word representations; we utilize disambiguated, embedded, morphosyntactic features from lexicons (Sagot, 2018), which complements the existing feature set. Henceforth, we call our system ‘ELMoLex’. In addition to incorporating character embeddings, ELMoLex benefits from pre-trained word vectors, ELMo and morphosyntactic features (whenever available) to correctly handle rare or unknown words which are prevalent in languages with complex morphology. ELMoLex ranked 11th by Labeled Attachment Score metric (70.64%), Morphology-aware LAS metric (55.74%) and ranked 9th by Bilexical dependency metric (60.70%).


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Improving Distributed Representations of Tweets - Present and Future
Ganesh Jawahar
Proceedings of ACL 2017, Student Research Workshop