Elizaveta Kuzmenko


Representing ELMo embeddings as two-dimensional text online
Andrey Kutuzov | Elizaveta Kuzmenko
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

We describe a new addition to the WebVectors toolkit which is used to serve word embedding models over the Web. The new ELMoViz module adds support for contextualized embedding architectures, in particular for ELMo models. The provided visualizations follow the metaphor of ‘two-dimensional text’ by showing lexical substitutes: words which are most semantically similar in context to the words of the input sentence. The system allows the user to change the ELMo layers from which token embeddings are inferred. It also conveys corpus information about the query words and their lexical substitutes (namely their frequency tiers and parts of speech). The module is well integrated into the rest of the WebVectors toolkit, providing lexical hyperlinks to word representations in static embedding models. Two web services have already implemented the new functionality with pre-trained ELMo models for Russian, Norwegian and English.


CONAN - COunter NArratives through Nichesourcing: a Multilingual Dataset of Responses to Fight Online Hate Speech
Yi-Ling Chung | Elizaveta Kuzmenko | Serra Sinem Tekiroglu | Marco Guerini
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Although there is an unprecedented effort to provide adequate responses in terms of laws and policies to hate content on social media platforms, dealing with hatred online is still a tough problem. Tackling hate speech in the standard way of content deletion or user suspension may be charged with censorship and overblocking. One alternate strategy, that has received little attention so far by the research community, is to actually oppose hate content with counter-narratives (i.e. informed textual responses). In this paper, we describe the creation of the first large-scale, multilingual, expert-based dataset of hate-speech/counter-narrative pairs. This dataset has been built with the effort of more than 100 operators from three different NGOs that applied their training and expertise to the task. Together with the collected data we also provide additional annotations about expert demographics, hate and response type, and data augmentation through translation and paraphrasing. Finally, we provide initial experiments to assess the quality of our data.

Distributional Semantics in the Real World: Building Word Vector Representations from a Truth-Theoretic Model
Elizaveta Kuzmenko | Aurélie Herbelot
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computational Semantics - Short Papers

Distributional semantics models (DSMs) are known to produce excellent representations of word meaning, which correlate with a range of behavioural data. As lexical representations, they have been said to be fundamentally different from truth-theoretic models of semantics, where meaning is defined as a correspondence relation to the world. There are two main aspects to this difference: a) DSMs are built over corpus data which may or may not reflect ‘what is in the world’; b) they are built from word co-occurrences, that is, from lexical types rather than entities and sets. In this paper, we inspect the properties of a distributional model built over a set-theoretic approximation of ‘the real world’. To achieve this, we take the annotation a large database of images marked with objects, attributes and relations, convert the data into a representation akin to first-order logic and build several distributional models using various combinations of features. We evaluate those models over both relatedness and similarity datasets, demonstrating their effectiveness in standard evaluations. This allows us to conclude that, despite prior claims, truth-theoretic models are good candidates for building graded lexical representations of meaning.

To Lemmatize or Not to Lemmatize: How Word Normalisation Affects ELMo Performance in Word Sense Disambiguation
Andrey Kutuzov | Elizaveta Kuzmenko
Proceedings of the First NLPL Workshop on Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we critically evaluate the widespread assumption that deep learning NLP models do not require lemmatized input. To test this, we trained versions of contextualised word embedding ELMo models on raw tokenized corpora and on the corpora with word tokens replaced by their lemmas. Then, these models were evaluated on the word sense disambiguation task. This was done for the English and Russian languages. The experiments showed that while lemmatization is indeed not necessary for English, the situation is different for Russian. It seems that for rich-morphology languages, using lemmatized training and testing data yields small but consistent improvements: at least for word sense disambiguation. This means that the decisions about text pre-processing before training ELMo should consider the linguistic nature of the language in question.


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Clustering of Russian Adjective-Noun Constructions using Word Embeddings
Andrey Kutuzov | Elizaveta Kuzmenko | Lidia Pivovarova
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Balto-Slavic Natural Language Processing

This paper presents a method of automatic construction extraction from a large corpus of Russian. The term ‘construction’ here means a multi-word expression in which a variable can be replaced with another word from the same semantic class, for example, ‘a glass of [water/juice/milk]’. We deal with constructions that consist of a noun and its adjective modifier. We propose a method of grouping such constructions into semantic classes via 2-step clustering of word vectors in distributional models. We compare it with other clustering techniques and evaluate it against A Russian-English Collocational Dictionary of the Human Body that contains manually annotated groups of constructions with nouns meaning human body parts. The best performing method is used to cluster all adjective-noun bigrams in the Russian National Corpus. Results of this procedure are publicly available and can be used for building Russian construction dictionary as well as to accelerate theoretical studies of constructions.

Building Web-Interfaces for Vector Semantic Models with the WebVectors Toolkit
Andrey Kutuzov | Elizaveta Kuzmenko
Proceedings of the Software Demonstrations of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this demo we present WebVectors, a free and open-source toolkit helping to deploy web services which demonstrate and visualize distributional semantic models (widely known as word embeddings). WebVectors can be useful in a very common situation when one has trained a distributional semantics model for one’s particular corpus or language (tools for this are now widespread and simple to use), but then there is a need to demonstrate the results to general public over the Web. We show its abilities on the example of the living web services featuring distributional models for English, Norwegian and Russian.


Exploration of register-dependent lexical semantics using word embeddings
Andrey Kutuzov | Elizaveta Kuzmenko | Anna Marakasova
Proceedings of the Workshop on Language Technology Resources and Tools for Digital Humanities (LT4DH)

We present an approach to detect differences in lexical semantics across English language registers, using word embedding models from distributional semantics paradigm. Models trained on register-specific subcorpora of the BNC corpus are employed to compare lists of nearest associates for particular words and draw conclusions about their semantic shifts depending on register in which they are used. The models are evaluated on the task of register classification with the help of the deep inverse regression approach. Additionally, we present a demo web service featuring most of the described models and allowing to explore word meanings in different English registers and to detect register affiliation for arbitrary texts. The code for the service can be easily adapted to any set of underlying models.

Neural Embedding Language Models in Semantic Clustering of Web Search Results
Andrey Kutuzov | Elizaveta Kuzmenko
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

In this paper, a new approach towards semantic clustering of the results of ambiguous search queries is presented. We propose using distributed vector representations of words trained with the help of prediction-based neural embedding models to detect senses of search queries and to cluster search engine results page according to these senses. The words from titles and snippets together with semantic relationships between them form a graph, which is further partitioned into components related to different query senses. This approach to search engine results clustering is evaluated against a new manually annotated evaluation data set of Russian search queries. We show that in the task of semantically clustering search results, prediction-based models slightly but stably outperform traditional count-based ones, with the same training corpora.


Semi-automated typical error annotation for learner English essays: integrating frameworks
Andrey Kutuzov | Elizaveta Kuzmenko
Proceedings of the fourth workshop on NLP for computer-assisted language learning


Russian Error-Annotated Learner English Corpus: a Tool for Computer-Assisted Language Learning
Elizaveta Kuzmenko | Andrey Kutuzov
Proceedings of the third workshop on NLP for computer-assisted language learning