Archiki Prasad


GrIPS: Gradient-free, Edit-based Instruction Search for Prompting Large Language Models
Archiki Prasad | Peter Hase | Xiang Zhou | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Providing natural language instructions in prompts is a useful new paradigm for improving task performance of large language models in a zero-shot setting. Recent work has aimed to improve such prompts via manual rewriting or gradient-based tuning. However, manual rewriting is time-consuming and requires subjective interpretation, while gradient-based tuning can be extremely computationally demanding for large models and may not be feasible for API-based models. In this work, we introduce Gradient-free Instructional Prompt Search (GrIPS), a gradient-free, edit-based search approach for improving task instructions for large language models. GrIPS takes in instructions designed for humans and automatically returns an improved, edited prompt, while allowing for API-based tuning. With InstructGPT models, GrIPS improves the average task performance by up to 4.30 percentage points on eight classification tasks from the Natural Instructions dataset (with similar improvements for OPT, BLOOM, and FLAN-T5). We see improvements for both instruction-only prompts and instruction + k-shot examples prompts. Notably, GrIPS outperforms manual rewriting and purely example-based prompts while controlling for the available compute and data budget. Further, performance of GrIPS is comparable to select gradient-based tuning approaches. Qualitatively, we show our edits can simplify instructions and at times make them incoherent but nonetheless improve accuracy.


The Effectiveness of Intermediate-Task Training for Code-Switched Natural Language Understanding
Archiki Prasad | Mohammad Ali Rehan | Shreya Pathak | Preethi Jyothi
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Multilingual Representation Learning

While recent benchmarks have spurred a lot of new work on improving the generalization of pretrained multilingual language models on multilingual tasks, techniques to improve code-switched natural language understanding tasks have been far less explored. In this work, we propose the use of bilingual intermediate pretraining as a reliable technique to derive large and consistent performance gains using code-switched text on three different NLP tasks: Natural Language Inference (NLI), Question Answering (QA) and Sentiment Analysis (SA). We show consistent performance gains on four different code-switched language-pairs (Hindi-English, Spanish-English, Tamil-English and Malayalam-English) for SA and on Hindi-English for NLI and QA. We also present a code-switched masked language modeling (MLM) pretraining technique that consistently benefits SA compared to standard MLM pretraining using real code-switched text.


How Accents Confound: Probing for Accent Information in End-to-End Speech Recognition Systems
Archiki Prasad | Preethi Jyothi
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this work, we present a detailed analysis of how accent information is reflected in the internal representation of speech in an end-to-end automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. We use a state-of-the-art end-to-end ASR system, comprising convolutional and recurrent layers, that is trained on a large amount of US-accented English speech and evaluate the model on speech samples from seven different English accents. We examine the effects of accent on the internal representation using three main probing techniques: a) Gradient-based explanation methods, b) Information-theoretic measures, and c) Outputs of accent and phone classifiers. We find different accents exhibiting similar trends irrespective of the probing technique used. We also find that most accent information is encoded within the first recurrent layer, which is suggestive of how one could adapt such an end-to-end model to learn representations that are invariant to accents.