Anand Mishra


COFAR: Commonsense and Factual Reasoning in Image Search
Prajwal Gatti | Abhirama Subramanyam Penamakuri | Revant Teotia | Anand Mishra | Shubhashis Sengupta | Roshni Ramnani
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

One characteristic that makes humans superior to modern artificially intelligent models is the ability to interpret images beyond what is visually apparent. Consider the following two natural language search queries – (i) “a queue of customers patiently waiting to buy ice cream” and (ii) “a queue of tourists going to see a famous Mughal architecture in India”. Interpreting these queries requires one to reason with (i) Commonsense such as interpreting people as customers or tourists, actions as waiting to buy or going to see; and (ii) Fact or world knowledge associated with named visual entities, for example, whether the store in the image sells ice cream or whether the landmark in the image is a Mughal architecture located in India. Such reasoning goes beyond just visual recognition. To enable both commonsense and factual reasoning in the image search, we present a unified framework namely Knowledge Retrieval-Augmented Multimodal Transformer (KRAMT) that treats the named visual entities in an image as a gateway to encyclopedic knowledge and leverages them along with natural language query to ground relevant knowledge. Further, KRAMT seamlessly integrates visual content and grounded knowledge to learn alignment between images and search queries. This unified framework is then used to perform image search requiring commonsense and factual reasoning. The retrieval performance of KRAMT is evaluated and compared with related approaches on a new dataset we introduce – namely COFAR.

VisToT: Vision-Augmented Table-to-Text Generation
Prajwal Gatti | Anand Mishra | Manish Gupta | Mithun Das Gupta
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Table-to-text generation has been widely studied in the Natural Language Processing community in the recent years. We give a new perspective to this problem by incorporating signals from both tables as well as associated images to generate relevant text. While tables contain a structured list of facts, images are a rich source of unstructured visual information. For example, in the tourism domain, images can be used to infer knowledge such as the type of landmark (e.g., church), its architecture (e.g., Ancient Roman), and composition (e.g., white marble). Therefore, in this paper, we introduce the novel task of Vision-augmented Table-To-Text Generation (VisToT, defined as follows: given a table and an associated image, produce a descriptive sentence conditioned on the multimodal input. For the task, we present a novel multimodal table-to-text dataset, WikiLandmarks, covering 73,084 unique world landmarks. Further, we also present a competitive architecture, namely, VT3 that generates accurate sentences conditioned on the image and table pairs. Through extensive analyses and experiments, we show that visual cues from images are helpful in (i) inferring missing information from incomplete or sparse tables, and (ii) strengthening the importance of useful information from noisy tables for natural language generation. We make the code and data publicly available.


Using NLP Methods for the Analysis of Rituals
Nils Reiter | Oliver Hellwig | Anand Mishra | Anette Frank | Jens Burkhardt
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

This paper gives an overview of an interdisciplinary research project that is concerned with the application of computational linguistics methods to the analysis of the structure and variance of rituals, as investigated in ritual science. We present motivation and prospects of a computational approach to ritual research, and explain the choice of specific analysis techniques. We discuss design decisions for data collection and processing and present the general NLP architecture. For the analysis of ritual descriptions, we apply the frame semantics paradigm with newly invented frames where appropriate. Using scientific ritual research literature, we experimented with several techniques of automatic extraction of domain terms for the domain of rituals. As ritual research is a highly interdisciplinary endeavour, a vocabulary common to all sub-areas of ritual research can is hard to specify and highly controversial. The domain terms extracted from ritual research literature are used as a basis for a common vocabulary and thus help the creation of ritual specific frames. We applied the tf*idf, 2 and PageRank algorithm to our ritual research literature corpus and two non-domain corpora: The British National Corpus and the British Academic Written English corpus. All corpora have been part of speech tagged and lemmatized. The domain terms have been evaluated by two ritual experts independently. Interestingly, the results of the algorithms were different for different parts of speech. This finding is in line with the fact that the inter-annotator agreement also differs between parts of speech.