Alexander Kuhnle


The Meaning of “Most” for Visual Question Answering Models
Alexander Kuhnle | Ann Copestake
Proceedings of the 2019 ACL Workshop BlackboxNLP: Analyzing and Interpreting Neural Networks for NLP

The correct interpretation of quantifier statements in the context of a visual scene requires non-trivial inference mechanisms. For the example of “most”, we discuss two strategies which rely on fundamentally different cognitive concepts. Our aim is to identify what strategy deep learning models for visual question answering learn when trained on such questions. To this end, we carefully design data to replicate experiments from psycholinguistics where the same question was investigated for humans. Focusing on the FiLM visual question answering model, our experiments indicate that a form of approximate number system emerges whose performance declines with more difficult scenes as predicted by Weber’s law. Moreover, we identify confounding factors, like spatial arrangement of the scene, which impede the effectiveness of this system.


Deep learning evaluation using deep linguistic processing
Alexander Kuhnle | Ann Copestake
Proceedings of the Workshop on Generalization in the Age of Deep Learning

We discuss problems with the standard approaches to evaluation for tasks like visual question answering, and argue that artificial data can be used to address these as a complement to current practice. We demonstrate that with the help of existing ‘deep’ linguistic processing technology we are able to create challenging abstract datasets, which enable us to investigate the language understanding abilities of multimodal deep learning models in detail, as compared to a single performance value on a static and monolithic dataset.


A Proposition-Based Abstractive Summariser
Yimai Fang | Haoyue Zhu | Ewa Muszyńska | Alexander Kuhnle | Simone Teufel
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Abstractive summarisation is not yet common amongst today’s deployed and research systems. Most existing systems either extract sentences or compress individual sentences. In this paper, we present a summariser that works by a different paradigm. It is a further development of an existing summariser that has an incremental, proposition-based content selection process but lacks a natural language (NL) generator for the final output. Using an NL generator, we can now produce the summary text to directly reflect the selected propositions. Our evaluation compares textual quality of our system to the earlier preliminary output method, and also uses ROUGE to compare to various summarisers that use the traditional method of sentence extraction, followed by compression. Our results suggest that cutting out the middle-man of sentence extraction can lead to better abstractive summaries.

Resources for building applications with Dependency Minimal Recursion Semantics
Ann Copestake | Guy Emerson | Michael Wayne Goodman | Matic Horvat | Alexander Kuhnle | Ewa Muszyńska
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

We describe resources aimed at increasing the usability of the semantic representations utilized within the DELPH-IN (Deep Linguistic Processing with HPSG) consortium. We concentrate in particular on the Dependency Minimal Recursion Semantics (DMRS) formalism, a graph-based representation designed for compositional semantic representation with deep grammars. Our main focus is on English, and specifically English Resource Semantics (ERS) as used in the English Resource Grammar. We first give an introduction to ERS and DMRS and a brief overview of some existing resources and then describe in detail a new repository which has been developed to simplify the use of ERS/DMRS. We explain a number of operations on DMRS graphs which our repository supports, with sketches of the algorithms, and illustrate how these operations can be exploited in application building. We believe that this work will aid researchers to exploit the rich and effective but complex DELPH-IN resources.