Abhinav Kumar


IIITSurat@LT-EDI-ACL2022: Hope Speech Detection using Machine Learning
Pradeep Roy | Snehaan Bhawal | Abhinav Kumar | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Language Technology for Equality, Diversity and Inclusion

This paper addresses the issue of Hope Speech detection using machine learning techniques. Designing a robust model that helps in predicting the target class with higher accuracy is a challenging task in machine learning, especially when the distribution of the class labels is highly imbalanced. This study uses and compares the experimental outcomes of the different oversampling techniques. Many models are implemented to classify the comments into Hope and Non-Hope speech, and it found that machine learning algorithms perform better than deep learning models. The English language dataset used in this research was developed by collecting YouTube comments and is part of the task “ACL-2022:Hope Speech Detection for Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion”. The proposed model achieved a weighted F1-score of 0.55 on the test dataset and secured the first rank among the participated teams.

SOA_NLP@LT-EDI-ACL2022: An Ensemble Model for Hope Speech Detection from YouTube Comments
Abhinav Kumar | Sunil Saumya | Pradeep Roy
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Language Technology for Equality, Diversity and Inclusion

Language should be accommodating of equality and diversity as a fundamental aspect of communication. The language of internet users has a big impact on peer users all over the world. On virtual platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, people express their opinions in different languages. People respect others’ accomplishments, pray for their well-being, and cheer them on when they fail. Such motivational remarks are hope speech remarks. Simultaneously, a group of users encourages discrimination against women, people of color, people with disabilities, and other minorities based on gender, race, sexual orientation, and other factors. To recognize hope speech from YouTube comments, the current study offers an ensemble approach that combines a support vector machine, logistic regression, and random forest classifiers. Extensive testing was carried out to discover the best features for the aforementioned classifiers. In the support vector machine and logistic regression classifiers, char-level TF-IDF features were used, whereas in the random forest classifier, word-level features were used. The proposed ensemble model performed significantly well among English, Spanish, Tamil, Malayalam, and Kannada YouTube comments.


Offensive language identification in Dravidian code mixed social media text
Sunil Saumya | Abhinav Kumar | Jyoti Prakash Singh
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Speech and Language Technologies for Dravidian Languages

Hate speech and offensive language recognition in social media platforms have been an active field of research over recent years. In non-native English spoken countries, social media texts are mostly in code mixed or script mixed/switched form. The current study presents extensive experiments using multiple machine learning, deep learning, and transfer learning models to detect offensive content on Twitter. The data set used for this study are in Tanglish (Tamil and English), Manglish (Malayalam and English) code-mixed, and Malayalam script-mixed. The experimental results showed that 1 to 6-gram character TF-IDF features are better for the said task. The best performing models were naive bayes, logistic regression, and vanilla neural network for the dataset Tamil code-mix, Malayalam code-mixed, and Malayalam script-mixed, respectively instead of more popular transfer learning models such as BERT and ULMFiT and hybrid deep models.

How much coffee was consumed during EMNLP 2019? Fermi Problems: A New Reasoning Challenge for AI
Ashwin Kalyan | Abhinav Kumar | Arjun Chandrasekaran | Ashish Sabharwal | Peter Clark
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Many real-world problems require the combined application of multiple reasoning abilities—employing suitable abstractions, commonsense knowledge, and creative synthesis of problem-solving strategies. To help advance AI systems towards such capabilities, we propose a new reasoning challenge, namely Fermi Problems (FPs), which are questions whose answers can only be approximately estimated because their precise computation is either impractical or impossible. For example, “How much would the sea level rise if all ice in the world melted?” FPs are commonly used in quizzes and interviews to bring out and evaluate the creative reasoning abilities of humans. To do the same for AI systems, we present two datasets: 1) A collection of 1k real-world FPs sourced from quizzes and olympiads; and 2) a bank of 10k synthetic FPs of intermediate complexity to serve as a sandbox for the harder real-world challenge. In addition to question-answer pairs, the datasets contain detailed solutions in the form of an executable program and supporting facts, helping in supervision and evaluation of intermediate steps. We demonstrate that even extensively fine-tuned large-scale language models perform poorly on these datasets, on average making estimates that are off by two orders of magnitude. Our contribution is thus the crystallization of several unsolved AI problems into a single, new challenge that we hope will spur further advances in building systems that can reason.


Augmenting Small Data to Classify Contextualized Dialogue Acts for Exploratory Visualization
Abhinav Kumar | Barbara Di Eugenio | Jillian Aurisano | Andrew Johnson
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Our goal is to develop an intelligent assistant to support users explore data via visualizations. We have collected a new corpus of conversations, CHICAGO-CRIME-VIS, geared towards supporting data visualization exploration, and we have annotated it for a variety of features, including contextualized dialogue acts. In this paper, we describe our strategies and their evaluation for dialogue act classification. We highlight how thinking aloud affects interpretation of dialogue acts in our setting and how to best capture that information. A key component of our strategy is data augmentation as applied to the training data, since our corpus is inherently small. We ran experiments with the Balanced Bagging Classifier (BAGC), Condiontal Random Field (CRF), and several Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks, and found that all of them improved compared to the baseline (e.g., without the data augmentation pipeline). CRF outperformed the other classification algorithms, with the LSTM networks showing modest improvement, even after obtaining a performance boost from domain-trained word embeddings. This result is of note because training a CRF is far less resource-intensive than training deep learning models, hence given a similar if not better performance, traditional methods may still be preferable in order to lower resource consumption.


Towards a dialogue system that supports rich visualizations of data
Abhinav Kumar | Jillian Aurisano | Barbara Di Eugenio | Andrew Johnson | Alberto Gonzalez | Jason Leigh
Proceedings of the 17th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue